How Structural Failure Occurs

Structural failure concerns with reduction in the load bearing capability of a structural component or element, or the main structure. Structural failure is commenced when the material is stressed to its upper strength limit, thus causing rupture or extreme deformations. The ultimate strength of the material or the system is the limit of the load bearing capacity. On reaching this limit, the construction materials could already been damaged, and their load carrying capacity is suddenly decreased permanently. If the system is properly designed, a local collapse should normally not be a cause of instant or gradual failure of the complete building. The ultimate failure strength of the construction elements should be carefully considered in the design of structures to prevent failure.

Design Parameters

A progressive collapse of a building or structure is initiated from local fracture that later spreads to include the main section of the facility. Current concerns with such collapses stem basically from modifications in building practices and improper structural designs. Strategies for mitigating the structural failures can be evaluated using a thoughtful risk assessment, supported by modern computational tools. It is important to arrange soil testing on the actual site before the detailed planning starts. Buildings, like all construction, are designed to sustain specific loads without excessive deformation to prevent failure. The live loads consist of the weights of humans, objects, rain, snow, and the wind pressure, while the dead load is that of the building itself. With buildings consisting of a few floors, strength usually involves adequate rigidity, and the vital design is essentially that of the roof that will endure the weather effects. However, the roof design is of a minor significance for tall buildings, and the major considerations are that of the building supports.

Prevention Of Structural Damage

Structures may fail due to numerous reasons that need to be thoroughly deliberated during the initiation, design, planning, executing, and the monitoring processes of the project. Faulty construction has been the most important cause of structural failures. This includes the use of salty sand to produce concrete, use of inferior steel, improver riveting, incorrect nut tightening torques, defective welding, and other wrong engineering practices. Designers of structures should also consider the seismic effects to prevent damage due to the earthquakes. Earthquakes may cause problems concerning the foundations when the damp land liquefies.

Also read:

When was the first car invented? Well, the automobile history dates back to 1769 when a steam engine was invented for the the transport of human at low speed. In 1885 the first automobile was invented, which ran on petrol and gas. This was the first automobile invented we can say, which was power enough to carry persons to medium-long distances at a reasonable fast speed.  Then at the start of the 21st century cars powered by electric power appeared.

The Early Cars and the Inventors

Karl Benz from Germany invented various car technologies. See photo of Karl at right. He is also regarded as the main inventor of the modern cars. He also received a German patent in 1886. the 4 stroke internal combustion engine that ran on petrol, and that was advanced was a creation of a German inventor Nikolaus Otto. A similar 4 stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell (a replacement for gasoline) was discovered by a German Christian Frierich in 1838.  Anyos Jedlik of Hungry invented battery electric cars and Gaston Plante invented lead-acid battery for cars in 1859.

In 1838, electric powered cars that can attain 4 miles / hour speed started to appear. Then between 1832 and 1839, first crude electric carriage powered by non-rechargeable cells was built by a Scottish Robert Anderson. Charles Edgar and his brother Frank, around 1893 created a first successful gas powered car with 4hp and 2 stroke motor. These brother set up first American automobile manufacturing company.

This was the history of automobile. That was interesting to learn, isn't it?

Any object will float on water if its gravitational force (downward force) is less than the upward force. The upward force is caused by the amount of water under the object. More there will be water under the object the better the object will float and will not drown.

Since a boat has an expanded size, its downward force is spread over a large area of water, and the water below is enough to give the upward force to keep the boat on the water surface. This explains why a huge boat will not drown whereas a small stone will drown.  Furthermore, boats are designed specially in such a way that they would displace enough water to ensure they will float easily.   

When weight is put on a boat, it is also spread in the boat, also on the water surface. If the weight did not spread, the boat will sink. Hence, boats are not only designed in such a way that these are expanded, these are only designed in such a way that when weight is put on them, it is spread across their body.

This concept that when the upward force is higher than the downward force is called Buoyancy.

Components of Solar Car

A solar car consists of many different types of components that are used in any typical car. However, solar cars also have other components that are only used in solar cars. These components are described below.


The battery in the solar car is the main source of energy to pull the car. The battery has enough energy to drive the car as far as 500 kms (250 miles). The battery has a life of 10 to 15 years compared to 2 to 3 years of a typical car battery


Typical solar car motors are strong enough to attain the speed of 160 kms/h (100 miles/h). If the car uses AC motor, it will be a 240V battery and it a DC motor is used, it will run from 96 to 192 volts

Solar Panel

Solar panel is responsible for converting sun energy to electricity. Solar panels come in many different shapes, sizes and specifications.

Other Components

Like any other car, solar cars also have brakes, tires, steering, and suspension system. However, these components are specially made to be used by the solar cars, as they need to be lighter in weight and durable at the same time.

These are the components of solar car. Also read: Pros and Cons of Solar Powered Cars, Solar Cars Information

There are many interesting facts associated with Concorde. These can be read on this page. Here, find about the places where the retired Concorde planes are parked and where you can go to see them or even go inside them.


  • Brooklands Museum, Weybridge, Surrey, England, UK
  • Manchester Airport, England, UK
  • Museum of Flight, East Lothian, Scotland, UK
  • Heathrow Airport, London, England, UK
  • Aerospace Bristol, Bristol, England, UK


  • Airbus Factory, Toulouse, France
  • Charles de Gaulle Airport, Paris, France
  • The Museum of Air and Space, Le Bourget, France


  • Grantley Adams International Airport, Barbados


  • Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum, New York, USA
  • Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Chantilly, Virginia USA


  • Sinsheim Auto & Technik Museum, Germany

These are the locations of Concorde planes. You must visit one of the places and see the magnificent plane with your eyes.