What a 4-Wheel Car Can Do That a 2-Wheel Car Cannot?

A four-wheel car comes with a very high price tag but at the same time there are many advantages of driving a 4-wheel drive vehicle. The advantages of a 4-wheel drive car are mentioned below. 

1. You may drive on icy, slippery and snowy roads.

2. You get greater towing capabilities.

3. You may feel more secure while driving a 4-wheel drive vehicle.

4. You get better cornering stability.

5. You will experience better steering precision and better steering response.

6. The vehicle's turning circle is reduced, allowing easier, quicker corner parking and easier maneuvering.

7. You can experience improved rapid-lane maneuvering.

8. You are less likely to go into a spin during sudden braking, and turnings

Do you own a 4-wheel car? Or have you ever driven any four-wheel vehicle? If so, comment below, sharing with others your experience of the four wheel steering car.
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Airbus A350-1000 is the latest airplane. Qatar Airways is the launch customer of this aircraft. The following are interesting facts about Airbus A350-1000

  • A350-1000 has the quietest cabin ever make for an aircraft.

  • This airplane features highest ceiling, which gives increased feeling of enough space.

  • The 18-inch wide seats give more personal space to the passengers.

  • A350-1000 also features unique flat floor.

  • The cabin has better humidity control.

  • The LED ambient lighting makes you feel less fatigued.

  • This plane also comprises largest overhead bins.

  • When it comes to fuel saving, the plane takes pride in holding the world's most fuel efficient engine.

  • The use of composite material gives significant weight savings.

  • The aircraft uses less redundant circuit boards and control systems. This saves weight and also reduces maintenance cost.

  • The interior gives a new, unique experience to the passengers.

    These were facts about Airbus 350-1000
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The Airbus A380 is world's largest commercial airline. It was launched in 2007 and it has impressed the world with its spacious and luxurious interior. There are many interesting facts about A380, including the following:

Airbus A380 Facts

1. The first fact about A380 will surprise you. Many believe that A380 is the largest plane in the world. It is not! There is one more airplane called Antonov An-225, it is larger than A380. It is russian-made aircraft and built for cargo transportation only. The An-225 is displayed in the right image.

2. The A380 is 24.1 meters high, 80 meters wide, and 72.7 meters long, equivalent to 2 blue whales length. The plane weighs approximately 590 tons.

3. The wings of the plane are 54% larger than the wings of a Boeing 747 aircraft.

4. The giant plane has enough space to carry approximately 3000 suitcases and 525 passengers.

5. The wings and Engines of A380 are made in England, tail and fuselage are made in Spain and Germany. All parts once made are then shipped to France by ship for assembly.

6. The internal working temperature of the airplane's four engines is 3100 degrees.  And the engines are of the same lengths as of Mercedes C-series car.

7. The A380 holds 81900 gallons of fuel weighing 560 tons.  It burns 17% less fuel than other large airplanes. It consumes 4 liter of fuel in 100 km per passenger.

8. Only 20 runways in the world are now fully capable of handling A380 airplanes. Others are not long or wide enough or not fully technically equipped for A380.

9. 21 flight attendants work in an A380, working in 5 galleries. The flight attendants have rest apartments with beds provided for napping during long-haul flights.

10. The giant plane flies at 43,000 feet, with maximum speed of 640 miles/hour.

11. 8000 bolts are used to attach the three main parts of the aircraft. In total, an A380 comprises 4 million individual components, produced by 1500 companies, in 30 different countries.

12. The A380 is a low-noise aircraft and uses light-weight and environment-friendly components. This aircraft also has lowest emission than any other aircraft.

13. The aircraft is designed for 140,000 flying hours.

14. If all the wiring in the A380 is laid end to end, it will stretch from Edinburgh to London - 320 miles.

15. More than 3600 liters of paint is required to paint the exterior of the aircraft.

These were facts about A380. You will also like to read Technical Specifications of Airbus A380 and Specifications of Boeing 787 Dreamliner.

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The following tables list technical specifications of Airbus A380:

Dimensions

Overall length

72.72 m

Cabin length

Main deck    

49.90 m

Upper deck

44.93 m

Fuselage width

7.14 m

Max cabin width

Main deck

6.54 m  

Upper deck

5.80 m

Wing span (geometric)

79.75 m

Height

24.09 m

Track

14.34 m

Wheelbase

31.88 m

Capacity

Pax

Typical   seating      

525 (3-class)

Max

853

Freight

LD3 capacity underfloor

38 LD3

Max pallet number underfloor

13

Bulk hold volume

14.3 m³

Total volume

184 m³ (containers+bulk)

Performance

Range

15 700 km

Mmo

M0.89

Max ramp weight

562   tonnes

Max take-off weight

560   tonnes

Max landing weight

386   tonnes

Max zero fuel weight

361   tonnes

Max fuel capacity

320 000   litres

Source: airbus.com

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Purpose of Steering System

The travel of a vehicle is controlled by the steering system, which comprises of linkages that connect steering wheel to the wheels and tires. Types of steering system are manual and power steering. In manual steering system, the only source of energy is the force applied by the driver. In power steering system, hydraulic pump or electric motor is used to assist the effort of the driver, to control movement of the vehicle. Modern vehicles, especially heavy vehicles, have power steering systems to control the vehicle with ease.

Operation of Steering System

The fundamental system of operation is the same in manual and power steering systems. As the steering wheel is turned by the driver, the movement is carried to the steering gear, which changes the rotary motion of the steering wheel into straight or linear motion. The linear motion is transmitted through steering linkages or tie rods, attached to the knuckle arms or steering arms. The steering knuckles, then pivot inward or outward on ball joints, which moves the wheels and tires to the left or right, as desired by the driver.

Components of Manual Steering System

The manual steering system consists of the steering wheel and steering shaft that transmit the effort of the driver to the steering gear. The steering gear increases the mechanical advantage, while changing the rotary motion of the steering wheel to linear motion. Tie rod ends connect balls with steering arms, which fit into ball sockets

Types of Steering Gears

Types of steering gears used in auto motive vehicles are the recirculation ball steering gear, and the rack-and-pinion steering gear. Both the steering gears are used in manual and power steering systems. Some vehicles use a worn-and-roller steering gear, which is similar to the recirculation ball system.

Steering Ratio

In steering system, the driver applies a small input force at the steering wheel, which produces a larger output force at the wheels. This increase in force is due to the mechanical advantage or steering ratio of the steering gear. Mechanical advantage is known as the ratio of force at output to the force at input. Steering ratio is the number of degrees that the steering wheel must turn so as to pivot the front wheels by one degree

Components Power Steering System

Power steering systems are basically a manual steering system with a power boosted. Some automotive power steering systems are operated hydraulically with a pump that supplies high pressure fluid, when the driver turns the steering wheel. Pressurized fluid causes the piston to move and provide most of the steering effort. This provides most of the required steering effort. Some cars also have electric power steering in which an electric motor provides the additional power.