Types of Hydraulic Cement and Its Uses

Hydraulic cement is widely being used in construction industry as a binder and has an efficient performance for repair of leaks. It is useful for applications exposed to water. The hydraulic cement is designed so that hydraulic cement properties are suitable for modern construction. 

Development Of Hydraulic Cement

Cement has been in use since the time construction works commenced, though its form and characteristics have been enhanced with the advancement in technology of all disciplines. Hydraulic cement signifies any cement that may establish and solidify when combined with water. Most of the construction cements being used are hydraulic. Hydraulic cement is one of the important inventions in the line of the Industrial Revolution to perform the changing requirements of the construction business. The hydraulic cement properties are useful for enduring the building finish during the wet climate, and providing hydraulic mortars for the harbor construction. Strong concrete is essentially required in the modern world for the construction of huge tall structures that have to endure massive loads. Mortar mixer is used to provide a homogeneous aggregate mixture.

Types Of Cement

Several kinds of cements can be produced by changing the ingredients and modifying the production processes. However, the cements that are commonly used are limited. The characteristics of cements can be altered by blending different quantities of clinker, gypsum, and some other additives. Cements that are commonly being used in the construction industry are categorized as hydraulic and non-hydraulic. These cements have different physical and chemical properties. There are numerous different types of hydraulic cements, and the most common being Portland cement. Other type of Hydraulic cement is Blended.

Hydraulic Cement Characteristics

Major application of hydraulic cement is for the manufacture of concrete and mortar. It bonds the aggregate to produce a building material that is strong, durable, and can withstand the environmental effects. After hardening is completed, the hydraulic cement will maintain its strength and hardness even below water. The majority of the construction cements being used in construction industry today are hydraulic. Non-hydraulic cement is mainly produced by calcium hydroxide, including materials like lime and gypsum that is kept under dry conditions to attain strength.

Non-Hydraulic Cement

Non-hydraulic cement was the initial cement that was conceived by the scientists. Non-hydraulic cement cannot be hardened when exposed to water, unlike the hydraulic cement that behaves differently. Non-hydraulic cements are produced by using materials like gypsum plasters, non-hydraulic lime, and other additives. Non-hydraulic cement should be kept dry to attain strength, and be able to maintain its structure. Mortars that contain non-hydraulic cement attain strength gradually after being dried. Non-hydraulic cements have become obsolete due to the difficulties involved regarding the long duration required for drying and setting.

Hydraulic Cement Applications

There are numerous uses of Hydraulic cement. After mixing of dry hydraulic cement with water, specific chemical reactions occur. These chemical reactions produce compounds that contain water. These compounds cause the mixture to be hardened. The compounds produced due to chemical reaction are not soluble in water. Thus, the cement that has been hardened will maintain its strength even when submerged in water. This specific characteristic makes the hydraulic cement particularly useful for the brick structures in the wet climate. Hydraulic cement is also useful for the harbors that are exposed to sea water. The most widespread form of hydraulic cement is known as Portland cement. It is used for the concrete production that contains cement, gravel, sand, and water. Another general application of the hydraulic cement is for repairing leaks and cracks. Hydraulic cements contain certain elements that cause cement expansion on drying. Thus, the holes in the concrete or other building materials are filled. Such repair work is often required due to the shrinkage of the Portland cement when dried. Basements located in the wet regions are especially vulnerable to leaks, and hydraulic cement is usefully employed at such places.

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Answering: How Does Wind Energy Work ?

How Does Wind Energy Works

The power production from wind power plants is unlike as from the usual power plants. This is largely due to the individualist character of the wind energy. This necessitates particular controls and various kinds of electrical generators. For a concise clarification read this article. 

Wind Energy - How Does it Produce Electricity?

How does wind energy work? Well, in a usual power plant, the input energy follows the output as the electrical load. In a wind power plant, the input energy control is restricted. In addition, the available resources are to be utilized, and at the same time the electrical characteristics are to be balanced. Wind power plants are not like this. The normal power plant utilizes a synchronous generator. It runs at a speed determined by the grid frequency. Accurate control of the input energy is likely when the electric load on the generator is altered. This efficiently manages the speed to correspond with the grid frequency.

In the generator of wind turbine, management of the input energy that is torque from the rotary motion of the wind turbine is not simple. The input energy by wind speeds changes in a broad range. The majority of the producers restrain wind speeds within a limit of 5 m/s to 30 m/s. There can also be unexpected breeze of wind. The generator attempts to turn at a speed close to the synchronous speed determined by the grid frequency. The generator is unduly stressed due to this distinct effect. The usual synchronous generator cannot react to these abrupt changes. To overwhelm these troubles various kinds of electric generators are used of in a wind power plant.

The most commonly utilized is the asynchronous generator and the variable frequency technique. A particular extent of mechanical control is obtainable in the wind turbine blades to manage the speed.

Wind Energy System

What happens when the wind speed rises further than the maximum power output ability of the generator?

  • In wind turbines that are controlled by pitch, a rotation of the individual blades avoids transfer of the total wind force to the generator. This is similar to varying the course of the sail in a boat. This kind of wind turbine needs an electrically or hydraulically functioning pitch control system.

  • In wind turbines with stall control, the wind turbine blades produce aerodynamic forces that decrease the output torque of the turbines at top wind speeds.

  • With change in the wind direction, anemometers can sense these alterations and runs the yaw mechanism that rotates the turbine to confront the wind.

  • When the wind speeds are not in control, the turbine revolution halts by the utilization of mechanical or hydraulic brakes.

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World's Future Energy Needs: Which Solution Can Meet? Alternative Energy Sources

We have become very much dependent on fossils for obtaining energy to meet our everyday's energy needs. How long can these fossils remain and survive to serve our needs? Is renewable energy not the perfect alternative to fossil energy? 

Worldwide Energy Requirements

People and today's scientists seem to have a lot of knowledge and enthusiasm about the growth and increased production of our worldwide energy requirements from alternative energy sources. We have alternative energy sources available with us in abundance in form of wind, solar and water. These are conventional sources of alternative energy that are becoming very common in use. The everyday research, development and increased enthusiasm that everyone has today for the alternative energy has already created a feel of complacence that our future energy needs

In our global society, alternative energy is an interesting concept, which simply means energy that is extracted from sources other than the usual and primary energy supply such as oil, coal and natural gas. At this age, we all very heavily depend on these three kinds of fossil fuel. We heavily rely on fossil fuel as the principal source of energy for heating, transportation and other necessities. would easily be met.

Renewable Energy

Even though, a lot of progress has been made and is still being made for the promotion and advancement of renewable energy, it is providing only seven percent of the world's energy production (Source: Energy Information Agency). On the other hand, the fossil fuels, along with nuclear energy (provides six percent of the world's energy supplies) are providing 94% of the world's energy resources. It is not likely that nuclear energy will become a major source of world energy in the future. It is because of public insistency and the dangers associated with letting loose the power of the atom. Despite that, many nations see its huge potential and are pressurizing for the further promotion of nuclear energy.

Fossil Fuels

While fossil fuels are capable of fulfilling our daily life needs very efficiently, there is also a problem with them, that is, the fossil fuels are non-renewable and that the available amount of them are decreasing very fast. The bitter truth is that one day; this limited available fuel will be depleted.

Fossil fuels are formed from animals and plants that existed billions of years ago and became buried deep below the earth's surface where their remains conjointly transmuted into the combustible materials we use today for fuel. The earliest fossil fuel remains are estimated to be 500 millions years old, this is supposedly when the animals and birds first appeared on Earth. The later fossil deposits began forming about five million years ago. The fact is that with the rate the fossil fuel is being consumed today, their formation can not happen quick enough to satisfy our today's and future demands.

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Construction Cranes: Basics and Types

Construction cranes have a significant contribution in the growth of the construction industry. The construction cranes include tower cranes, mobile cranes, truck mounted cranes, and several other types. The selection of construction cranes is based basically on the loads to be lifted. 

Essentials Of Construction Cranes

A construction crane is basically a machine that is used for lifting of heavy objects. A crane has a drum for wire, and chains with sheaves used for lifting and lowering loads. The loads may also be moved in a horizontal direction. Mechanical advantage is created for lifting of heavy loads.

Cranes are widely used in the construction industry for numerous applications. Cranes are also used in several other engineering applications. However, construction cranes have contributed significantly in the construction of huge tall structures. Several construction cranes are employed in the construction industry, including tower cranes, mobile cranes, and telescope cranes. The self erecting tower crane is assembled at the construction site. Construction cranes can be fixed at the ground, or located on a special vehicle that is designed for these applications. Construction cranes are categorized into a tower form, or a derrick equipped with suitable pulleys and cables.

Tower Cranes

Tower cranes are one of the important construction cranes that are widely used in the construction field. Tower cranes are rigidly fixed with the ground that facilitates the attainment of height, and increase the lifting capability. Tower cranes are widely being employed for the erection of tall structures. The essential parts of a tower crane include a base, tower, and the slewing mechanism. The tower stand is secured to a huge concrete pad that is used for supporting the crane. The concrete pads are formed much before the crane erection to ensure a firm concrete foundation. The base is fixed with the mast that provides the height to the tower crane. The mast top is joined with the slewing unit that has motor and gear for the crane rotation. The major components of the slewing unit are the working arm or the extended horizontal jib, a short horizontal arm, and the operator cab. The load is carried by the long horizontal jib by a trolley that operates along the jib.

Types Of Tower Cranes

The main kinds of tower cranes that are generally used in the construction industry are the Self Erect and Assisted Erect tower crane. Both the types of these tower cranes are extensively used with numerous jib configurations. The details of these tower cranes are as under:

Tower Crane Self Erect

This type of tower crane is basically intended to be transported, simply and rapidly, for fast erection. Some of the self erect cranes are equipped with generator, and are thus totally self contained.

Tower Crane Assisted Erect

This kind of tower crane is generally bigger with an enhanced lifting capacity, compared to the Self Erect cranes. It is designed to be built at the construction site, normally utilizing a mobile crane. Therefore, it is called an assisted crane.

Tower Crane Working

The tower crane functions by using the principle of moment or counterbalance. The force of counterbalance is created by the appropriate location of weights at the counter jib end. It is generally located opposite to the working jib. The counterweight is dependent upon the working jib length, and these details are provided by the crane manufacturer. Maximum tower crane stability is ensured by keeping the counterweights at a low level. Therefore, counterweights are normally located at the base of the tower cranes, and linked with the working jib through a wire rope.

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