Learn How Steering System Works

Purpose of Steering System

The travel of a vehicle is controlled by the steering system, which comprises of linkages that connect steering wheel to the wheels and tires. Types of steering system are manual and power steering. In manual steering system, the only source of energy is the force applied by the driver. In power steering system, hydraulic pump or electric motor is used to assist the effort of the driver, to control movement of the vehicle. Modern vehicles, especially heavy vehicles, have power steering systems to control the vehicle with ease.

Operation of Steering System

The fundamental system of operation is the same in manual and power steering systems. As the steering wheel is turned by the driver, the movement is carried to the steering gear, which changes the rotary motion of the steering wheel into straight or linear motion. The linear motion is transmitted through steering linkages or tie rods, attached to the knuckle arms or steering arms. The steering knuckles, then pivot inward or outward on ball joints, which moves the wheels and tires to the left or right, as desired by the driver.

Components of Manual Steering System

The manual steering system consists of the steering wheel and steering shaft that transmit the effort of the driver to the steering gear. The steering gear increases the mechanical advantage, while changing the rotary motion of the steering wheel to linear motion. Tie rod ends connect balls with steering arms, which fit into ball sockets

Types of Steering Gears

Types of steering gears used in auto motive vehicles are the recirculation ball steering gear, and the rack-and-pinion steering gear. Both the steering gears are used in manual and power steering systems. Some vehicles use a worn-and-roller steering gear, which is similar to the recirculation ball system.

Steering Ratio

In steering system, the driver applies a small input force at the steering wheel, which produces a larger output force at the wheels. This increase in force is due to the mechanical advantage or steering ratio of the steering gear. Mechanical advantage is known as the ratio of force at output to the force at input. Steering ratio is the number of degrees that the steering wheel must turn so as to pivot the front wheels by one degree

Components Power Steering System

Power steering systems are basically a manual steering system with a power boosted. Some automotive power steering systems are operated hydraulically with a pump that supplies high pressure fluid, when the driver turns the steering wheel. Pressurized fluid causes the piston to move and provide most of the steering effort. This provides most of the required steering effort. Some cars also have electric power steering in which an electric motor provides the additional power.

Answering: How Does an Airplane Stop: A Very Easy Guide For Aviation Enthusiasts

Answering: How Does an Airplane Stop: A Very Easy Guide For Aviation Enthusiasts

How does an airplane stop? An airplane stops when a combination of a number of things take place in sequence and/or together. Generally, commercial planes have 3 systems to stop the aircraft, described below. 

The first system that helps in stopping the airplane is called flaps. Look at the image at bottom and see how flaps are extended. These are extended before 5-10 minutes of descending. The flaps help the airplane to decelerate, thus reducing the speed before touchdown. Pilots can extend the flaps to any configuration to meet the demand of deceleration. The lower percentage of the flaps helps to give the plane a lift but as a certain percentage is crossed (normally 35 %), the drag starts to prevail over lift, causing the airplane to slow.


Spoilers, also called air brakes, aileron or speed brakes is another system to slow down an airplane before the touchdown and just after landing. Spoilers apply a backward force on the airplane's wings, with the help of air to slow the airplane. If you've ever looked out at a wing just before landing, you have probably seen them but only certain spoilers are opened in the air while others are locked out. See how spoilers are pointing up on the wings, in the right picture.


The second system of slowing down an airplane is called reverse thrusters, which comes in action right after the airplane wheels touch the ground. The purpose of reverse thrusters is to redirect engine thrust to help stop the airplane. Reverse thruster, as the word says, redirects the airflow to some other direction. See in the image at right how the frame that surrounds the engine looks if it's fallen apart. This forces the air that's coming out of the engine to be pushed up and down, altering the engine thrust. This in turn slows the airplane significantly.

You can see when the reverse thrusters are in action. They normally operate until the airplane is slowed down to a manageable speed. The noise at that time is somewhat intense for a few seconds. You can also see the water or dust droplets kicking out of the engine. The power of the engines is clearly heard and seen. This is an amazing experience. Because airplanes are getting bigger and heavier and just need more advanced braking technology, all of the newer airplanes have them.

The third system in the process of slowing and stopping an airplane is wheel brakes. Wheel brakes are applied gradually once both the rear and front wheels have touched on the runway. Commercial airplanes have at the minimum, wheel brakes for stopping. If the wheel brakes were just used to stop the airplane, it would take a very long runway length and the stopping interval would be greater. Some airplanes have auto brakes and the pilot can set their intensity to low, medium or high. Auto brakes are also used during take off and applies braking automatically in the event the take off is aborted for some reason.

Hope this answered well the question "how do airplanes stop", "how does an airplane stop"

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Learn How Engine's Cooling System Works

The engine's cooling system works with the combination of several components that work together to cool the engine. Read on to find out more on how en engine's cooling system works.

Why Cooling System is Necessary

The air fuel mixture burning in the engine cylinders may reach temperatures of 4000 Degrees F, due to which engine parts become very hot. However, walls of engine cylinders should not become hotter than approximately 500 degrees F, since higher temperatures can cause failure of lubricating oil, and loose its lubricating ability. The cooling system is used to prevent overheating of parts, by removal of heat from the engine.

Functions of Cooling System

Major function of the cooling system, is to keep the engine at its most efficient temperature, at all speeds and operating conditions. Heat is produced in the engine by burning of fuel, which must be removed, before it damages the parts of engine. It also assists in normalizing the engine temperature as soon as possible.

Major Parts of the Cooling System

Water Jackets: The cylinder block and cylinder head have internal passages or water jackets that surround the cylinder and combustion chamber. Water mixed with antifreeze, flows through the water jackets, taking away heat, due to which the metal parts are cooled.

Water Pump: Water pump is driven by the engine, which pushes the hot coolant out of the water jackets and through the radiator. It is attached to the front of the engine, and driven by a belt from the crankshaft pulley. As the impeller rotates, the curved blades draw coolant from the bottom of the radiator, and force the coolant through the pump outlet to the water jackets.

Thermostat: A thermostat valve known as thermostat controls the flow of the coolant. When the engine is cold, the thermostat closes to prevent the flow of coolant to the radiator. This keeps all heat in the engine, due to which it warms up quickly. As the engine warms, the thermostat opens to allow the coolant flow through the radiator.

Radiator: The radiator is a heat exchanger, with two sets of passages. One set is for the coolant, and the other set is for outside air. It consists of a radiator core, inlet tank and outlet tank. The coolant looses heat to the passing air in the radiator. Then the coolant flows back through the water jackets to again pick up heat. The coolant continuously circulates between the water jackets and the radiator.

Fan: A fan pulls or pushes outside air through the radiator. This improves the engine cooling, especially at idle and low speed. The fan can be either a mechanical fan or an electric fan.

Functioning of the engine cooling system is indicated by an indicator on the instrument panel, which the driver should observe frequently, so as to prevent damage to the engine in case of failure of cooling system parts.

Geneva Auto Show: History, Contestants, And More

Geneva Auto Show History

Geneva Auto Show commenced in year 1905, and it is a popular spot for the significant world debuts. Jaguar has brought out some of its most famous models at Geneva auto shows. In 1951, it presented the XK120 coupe, and 10 years later E-Type was introduced. In 1971, Lamborghini Countach drew the concentration of the participants of the show. After 10 years, in 1980 Audi quattro made its world debut, followed a year later in 1981 by the Volkswagen's Scirocco coupe.

Green Technology

Geneva Auto Show is organized every year in Geneva. The limelight of the show is expected to be the greener technology, for which a complete exhibition area has been devoted to green autos, including those with lower fuel consumption and new technologies. It will include more than 100 world debut appearances.


Major automakers of the world are participating in the show, with their most modern products being displayed. The aim will be to attract the customers, who have reduced in number considerably due to global recession. The show is expected to attract more than 700,000 visitors.

Cars Contesting

Around 30 thrilling world presentations are expected to be in the show, including the Cabriolet by Fiat, wonderful Mercedes-Benz E-class car, Audi's TT RS, with a turbocharged engine of capacity 2.5-liter, 300-hp, and the BMW 5-series GT.

Volvo is displaying seven extra clean diesel automotive, while the Swiss design firm Protoscar is introducing an environment friendly sports car called Lampo. Porsche will display their new 911 GT3 and Cayenne diesel SUV. Volkswagen have claimed a growth of 15 percent in year 2008, and a net profit of 4.75 billion, but the year 2009 is not predictable. They have started sub Compact Polo, which has a weight which is 7.5 per cent less than previous model.

Increase in Curiosity

The Geneva Motor Show has the show floor, which is easy to navigate. In one big hall, there are two levels of displays. Almost everything can be seen on the show floor. Most of the major manufacturers have large displays, and the and small volume specialty builders and designers, have arranged smaller stands, which may not be seen in other auto shows. The most debuts, or the biggest attendance, is not seen in the Geneva Motor Show, but each year, the interest increases from every major auto manufacturer. Both production and concept vehicles, can be seen from every corner of the world.

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