- Category: Technology
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Is TV bad for children? Today television has become an essential part of our daily lives. Children are also eager to watch TV when they are free or don't have anything to do. There are a lot of programs that children can watch according to their age, taste or mood such as plays on Disney channel, Cartoons or National Geographic. Today, parents must figure out, is TV good for children under two? Read on for pros and cons of watching TV for the children.
Advantages and Disadvantages of TV
Watching TV has its advantages and disadvantages. According to some Experts, watching of TV especially among children is not good for the health and the mind. On the other hand some argue that TV is not bad for children as it is an effective means which can influence the shaping of the children's future in many parts of the world.
Let's have a look on pros on cons of watching TV. Children imitate the action, the spoken word and/or the personality, therefore watching a lot of television is bad for kids because of the disclosure of violence and unethical activities. TV shows cause children to become abrasive to violence. Another harmful effect of TV is that watching direct TV for many hours affects children's eye-sight as well as it can make them over-weight in early age. To avoid such damages people should use TV guide and follow strictly when instructions given in it, for the health and safety of their children.
Keeps Children Home
Apart from some bad impacts of TV, it is also beneficial in many ways. Instead of playing in streets, your child remains in home and does not involve in bad habits of street crimes. You can keep a close eye on your children. There are many programs on TV channels that are fruitful for personality grooming of children.
Access to TV Media
There are many ways to access TV channels, such as dish TV, satellite TV, Cable network etc. Each has its own specialties; some allow users a variety of channels, some offer high quality channels or some offer both with some other advance features. TV can be accessed via internet. Now you can watch live TV on different websites via internet. There are many of channels available on internet around the world. By watching TV online children can get a lot of information upon worldwide events. In simple words, Online TV is more customized; it is playing great role in making people more informed today.
So, in final words, is watching TV bad for children? In the light of above discussion it can be concluded that it depends upon usage. Children should watch TV but the stuff should be moral and beneficial. Watching too much TV is bad, as excess of anything is bad. There are very few channels available for children under two, therefore parents should restrain them watching TV frequently.
- Category: Technology
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Advantages of iPad
So you have got a new iPad or planning to get one? It's a good decision! Find out below the many advantages of iPad to you.
The obvious main advantage of Apple iPads is that they are highly portable, which can be carried around anywhere. This makes your office and personal life easier as you can stay in touch with people anywhere you go, without worrying and the hassle of taking desktop or laptop computer with you, which are heavy, takes space, and not always convenient to take with you.
Easy to Fit & Carry
iPad's weight is around 650 grams, and it measures 9.5 (H) x 7.3 (W). It makes the iPad easy to carry with you, in your pocket, your suitcase, your office briefcase, and you can take it with you anywhere you want easily.
It Turns on Quickly
One of the greatest benefits of using an iPad is that, unlike PC or Mac, the Apple iPad turns on almost instantly when you switch it on. So if you've got an email to send, use want to use Facebook, calendar to schedule your tasks, or word processing software or anything, just switch on the iPad and in a couple seconds the iPad is ready to perform your work.
There are tons of home and business applications available from the Apple iTunes store, out of which hundreds of them are available free of cost. You can download games, and applications for business and home use â€“ all are easily downloadable from the iTunes store, with just a few clicks,
One of the main benefits of an iPad is that it allows you to conveniently stay in touch with people through web-mail, social networking websites, forums and through other means that are available to us on laptop/desktop computers.
There are tons of free and non-free apps available to use on an iPad. If you ever need an app that you couldn't find free, you can purchase the app for a very little cost. The iPad apps are available at a very low cost so you can save money while you perform daily-life computing.
Very Easy to Use
An iPad is very easy to use. You don't need anyone to teach you, you don't need to search for help on how to use it, an iPad is very simple to you â€“ anyone can use it with convenience.
Works Just as an eBook Reader
You can do eBook reading on an iPad. Many people say an iPad is more comfortable than Kindle for eBook reading.
Awesome Battery Life
iPads have excellent battery lives. You can work on an iPad, playing games, surfing internet, and more for more than 11 hours - that's awesome!
Buy Cheaper iPad from Amazon
These are the advantages of iPad, so you if you haven't got an iPad, you can buy one at a cheaper price from Amazon.com. Just click on the banner at the bottom to buy your iPad directly from Amazon.
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Primavera and MS Project Differences
MS Project and Primavera both are reputed software applications for proper project planning, reporting, progress updating and progress monitoring. Both the software are used worldwide and they have their own benefits. There are several differences between MS Project and Primavera P6. The following are the differences between Primavera P6 and Microsoft Project software.
In MS Project only 11 baselines can be created. In Primavera unlimited baselines can be created.
Multiple User Access
MS Project doesn't allow multiple users to work on a single project at the same time, Primavera allows you to do that. In Primavera you can even specify what features of Primavera a particular user can use , and which he can not.
Issues & Risks
MS Project lacks the feature of tracking project issues or risks. In Primavera, we can record issues and risks.
Primavera schedule, documents and other information can be converted to HTML directly from the software. MS Project doesn't have such option.
Steps in Primavera allows you to create sub-activities (steps) of an activity. Each step can have its own start and finish date, and a completed step can be marked as completed. This useful feature is missing in MS Project.
Besides Costs, in Primavera project expenses e.g training, travel, etc can also be added, in MS Project we can not add this information with many properties as we can in P6.
Both MS Project and Primavera allows us to create custom fields. But MS Project even allows us to define complex formulas and assign the values to user-created column.field. In Primavera we can create a blank custom fields, but we can not define formulas as detailed and complex to the columns as we can do in MS Project, so users have to manually enter values in each in the field, for each column.
Primavera P6 has many useful columns. It comes installed with over 250 columns, each giving you different information. Some column category to name include EVM, Budgeting, Costs, variances, dates etc. On the other hand in MS Project, there are only around 30 columns, giving the user with much less information about the project that we can view in Primavera.
Customized Project and resource calendars can be created in both MS Project and Primavera. But perhaps Calendars is the only feature in MS Project that is much better in MS Project as we can create different types of work day or non-work day recurrence patterns. Furthermore, we can also define range for the recurrence pattern to fall between. These easy and much demanded options are not available in Primavera, however these can still be done in Primavera manually, which is time consuming.
Multiple Activity Relationships
In Primavera P6, more than one type of relationship can be established between activities e.g we can have FF and SS between the same two activities. In MS Project only one relationship can be made between two activities.
The Primavera P6 software can create a comprehensive website comprising of complete project details including activities, resources, reports, risks, issues, WBS, and everything that has been entered in the software. This website is very valuable feature and is not present in MS Project.
Multiple Project Creation, View and Tracking
In Primavera multiple projects can be created and viewed. This can be done in MS Project too but since MS Project is not intended for multiple project use, it doesn't allow us to do things like we can do in Primavera like multiple project tracking, multiple project or WBS comparisons, cost and units calculations.
There are many more minor differences between Primavera P6 and and MS Project but above list is of major and prominent differences between the two software.
In Primavera P6 WBS is created separately from activities. Once WBS has been created, then we can add activities with each WBS element. Whereas in MS Project, activities are indented to make them look like WBS. The separate creation of WBS in P6 allows in-depth specification of WBS elements, with as much detail as possible, and with ease.
In Primavera, comprehensive reports can be created. In MS Project, reports can not be customized to display everything you want in the reports. However, MS Project allows us to create graphical reports and customize the graphics but this can not be done in Primavera. Primavera can show some graphics like Gantt Chart, Histograms and Spreadsheets but we can not customize their looks and the current graphics displays are not prominent enough.
Which one You Should Learn?
If you are heavily involved in a project or multiple projects, and you are requiring to computerize every detail of your project, you should go for Primavera P6. Or if you are working on a single project that doesn't require you record details other than activity schedule, resource list, and assignment details, use MS Project as it is simpler.
These were differences between Primavera and MS Project. Also read:
Recommended guides on Primavera
- What is Data Date in Primavera
- What is Risk Feature in Primavera P6
- The Use of 'Steps' Feature in Primavera
- Excel to Primavera Export Problem Solution
- How to Change Default Currency in Primavera
- Important and Useful Columns in Primavera
- Difference Between Free Float and Total Float
- Use of Roles in Primavera
- How to Measure Progress in Primavera
- Difference Among: Original vs Actual vs Remaining vs At Complete values.
- Category: Technology
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What is Switching:
In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches, which make telephone calls "work" in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information.
The switch is referred to as a "gate" when abstracted to mathematical form. In the philosophy of logic, operational arguments are represented as logic gates. The use of electronic gates to function as a system of logical gates is the fundamental basis for the computer i.e. a computer is a system of electronic switches which function as logical gates.
Before switching is a process of making a connection between end users. When a caller or the source want to call or communicate with the destination this involves switching of various trunks and systems before finally the communication between the source and the destination is made. So in short Switching is the vital component of a telephone exchange that is used to connect the the source and destination.
The main job of the exchange is to connect the two subscribers together. The unit responsible for this is known as a Switching system. Switching is organizing the time slots so that subscribers can communicate with each other. So switch is a system for handling the time slots.
Introduction to Digital Switching:
Digital exchanges establish the connections by rearranging the 8-bit PCMcode words of various telephone signals as dictated by the call request. Digital switch architecture is made up of two elements called T and S for time division switching (T) and space division switching (S) and can be made up of sequences of T and S. For example the AT&T NO 4 ESS is aTSSSST switch, No 3 EAX is an SSTSS and the classical Northern Telecom DMS 100 is TSTS folded. Many of these switches are still available. One thing in common with these switches is that they had multiple space (S) stage. This has now changed. Many of the new switches or enhanced versions of the switches just mentioned have very large capacities and are simply TST or STS switches.
Advantages of Digital Switching:
There are both economic and technical advantages of digital switching;
The economic advantages are discussed below.
There are notably fewer equivalent cross points for a given number of lines and trunks than in a space division switch.
"" A Digital switch is considerably smaller "" It has more common circuitry "" It is easier to achieve full availability with in economic constraints. "" The technical advantage include "" It is regenerative (it does not distort the signal, the output is cleaner then the input signal) "" It is noise resistant. "" It is computer based and thus incorporates all the advantages controlling, managing the hardware. "" The binary message format is compatible with digital computers. It is also compatible with signaling. "" A digital exchange is loss less. There is no insertion loss as a result of a switch inserted in a network.
Building Blocks of a Digital Switch:
The building blocks of a digital switch include:
- Time Switch
- Space Switch
In a most simplified way a time switch changes the time slot of the incoming traffic. As we know that a time slot in conventional PCMcontains 8 bits and that a basic frame is 125 microsecond in duration. Time slot interchanging involves moving the data contained in each time sot form the incoming bit stream to an outgoing bit stream but with different time slot arrangement in accordance with the destination of each time slot. What is done of course is to generate a new frame for transmission at the appropriate switch outlet.
Obviously to accomplish this at least one time slot must be stored in memory (write) and then called out of memory in a changed position (read). The operations must be controlled in some manner, and some of these control actions must be kept in memory together with the software managing such actions. Typical control functions are time slot "idle" or "busy".
Fundamental Blocks of a Time Switch:
Now we can identify three basic fundamental blocks of a time switch.
- 1. Memory for Speech (Buffer)
- 2. Memory for Control (Control Buffer)
- 3. Time Slot counter or processor
The time switch consists of a buffer memory also called time slot interchange memory for storing the time slot information that is speech to be switched.
Control memory has as many locations as there are time slots, contains the list i.e. the order of the cells from which unloading is to take place. It also contains the information where to switch a particular call.
There is a processor in the time switch handling and coordinating various operations of a time switch.
Implementation of a Time Switch:
For implementation of a Time Switch there are two choices:
- 1. Sequential write, random read
- 2. Random write, sequential read
Sequential write, random read: In sequential write and random read case the time slots are written into speech memory as they appear in the incoming bit stream. Then based on the discussion of the control memory the speech signals are read form speech memory and put on the output time slots. Random write, sequential read:
In this case the incoming time slots are written into the memory in order of appearance in the outgoing bit stream. This mean the incoming time slot are written into memory in the desired output order. The writing of incoming time slots into a speech memory can be controlled by a simple time slot counter and can be sequential.
Unlike the time switch the space switch operates without interchanging the time slots. The space switch can switch any 8-bit PCM word from the incoming highways to any outgoing highways without the change of time slot.
A space switch consists of a cross point matrix made up of logic gates (AND gate) that allow the switching of time slots in the spatial domain. The switch into pattern determined by the required network connectivity organizes these PCM time slot bit streams. The matrix consists of a number of input horizontals and a number of verticals with a logical gate at each cross point.
The array consists of a number of M inputs horizontals and N output verticals. For a given time slot the appropriate logic gate is enabled and the time slot passes from the input horizontal desired vertical output. The other horizontals, each serving a different serial stream of time slots, can have the same time slot switched into vertical enabling their gates. In the next time slot position a completely different path configuration could occur, again allowing time slots from the horizontals to be switched to the selected verticals. The selection of the course is a function of how the traffic is to be routed at that moment for calls in progress or being set up.
The exact sequence in which the AND gates are turned on and off is indicated in the control memory. The control addresses in the control memory designate the AND gate to be turned on for each time slot.
Difference between a Time and a Space Switch
When connections are made via a time switch the PCM words change their time slots between the input and the output.
When connections are made via space switch the PCM words change their highways between the input and the output, but retain their original time slot.
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