The following are advantages of using UDP over TCP:

1) UDP does not need the overhead required to detect reliability.

2) It does not need to maintain the unexpected deception of a data flow.

3) UDP requires less processing at the transmitting and receiving of hosts

4) It is simple to use for a network.

5) The operating system does not need to maintain UDP connections information.

6) Data transmission is faster than TCP.

Recommended Use of UDP

UDP is more appropriate to use it on large distributed systems where each host has to communicate with many destinations at the same time. In huge data communication systems, UDP helps reduce bandwidth and in faster data transmission. For example, when UDP is used for media streaming e.g. a movie, large data, generally in GBs is transmitted.  And if a tiny movie content is not transmitted (as UDP doesn't guarantee transmission) we can still understand it.

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Tag: UDP vs TCP

Many of the computer engineers and users, especially involved in system networking have come across a Domain Controller. Without it, there is no domain, means there can not be a controlled network.

What is definition of a domain controller, what does a domain controller do? Where is it used? How does domain controller work with non Windows-based systems? In this article, we will look at answers to all these questions.

First Learn What a Domain Is?

Before we learn what a domain controller is, knowing what a domain is will help you understand the concept of the domain controller better. So, what is a domain?

The answer to this question is simple: A domain is a set of interconnected resources on a Windows-based platform, such as printers, applications, etc) for a group of users. Users who are part of the domain (who are given usernames and passwords to log on to the domain) are granted specific permissions to access the resources, which may be located on one or more servers in the network.

In other words, a domain is a logical group of computers that maintain a central database, called Active Directory (AD). The database contains the user security and accounts information for the resources in that domain. Any person who uses computers within a domain gets his own account, which is assigned access to resources within that domain.

Now To the Question: What Is a Domain Controller?

What is a domain controller? Well, a domain controller (DC) or network domain controller is a Windows-based computer system that is used for storing user account data in a central database. A domain controller in a computer network is the centerpiece of the Active Directory (AD) services that provides domain-wide services to the users, such as security policy enforcement, user authentication, and access to resources.

A domain controller is a great tool for system administrators, as it allows them to grant or deny users access to system-wide resources, such as printers, documents, folders, network locations etc, via a single username and password. Once a domain controller is configured in a company, office or a building, it takes over the responsibility of responding to user's security authentication requests, such as checking permissions, logging in, etc.

When a client computer joins a domain, any user can login to the domain controller, using that computer. This benefit of that is that no matter which domain member (computer) he logs in from, he is able to access all his personal resources including the files he placed on the Desktop, files in Documents, printers, and his personal desktop preferences.

Domain Controller Compatibility with Operating Systems

A domain controller can communicate with all domain members or workstations but there is a limitation to the Active Directory (AD) System. The limitation is that the domain controller must host a Windows-based operating system. It means that all the domain members must also use the Windows operating system.

Fortunately, this limitation can now be overcome by use of Samba. Samba is open source software that allows workstations running other operating systems like OpenVMS, IBM System 390,Unix and Linux to interact with the domain controller. This is advantageous as because of this network administrators gets much more flexibility in setting up a computer network. It is particularly very useful in large organizations in which different departments need different operating systems.

If you were seeking information on "definition of a domain controller" or "what is a domain controller", hope this article explained that well to you.

Tags: what is a domain controller, what is the main function of a domain controller

Hewlett Packard

The acquisition of Neoware (a company that develops thin client computers) by HP in October 2007 led them to new heights of the computer industry. This became possible for them by gaining the present thin client market and utilizing their online business knowledge and marketing expertise. From 2007 up to now, HP has captured a lot of thin client customers including leading national and multinational companies and their systems have advanced to the extent that now HP claims to be world's number one manufacturer of thin clients.In addition, with the provision of more thin client choices, more thin client software, HP has gained fame and reputation to a greater extent. This means that other vendors like Wyse will have tough time reaching the customers and it could take them longer to reach the current level of HP.

Wyse Technology

Wyse was the market leader of thin client systems until HP moved ahead with its purchase of Neoware. As of today, Wyse stands at number two and per International Data Corporation (IDC) a market research and analysis firm, together Wyse and HP own about seventy percent of the market. Wyse offers almost everything that HP offers, from desktop thin clients to mobile thin clients, but their PocketCloud technology that allows users to manage their virtual desktops from Apple iPad', iTouch's and iPhone's is ahead of everything else in the market.Wyse has shipped more than ten million thin clients so far and with this speed, it looks like they will continue progressing at this pace. While Wyse isn't at the same level as HP, it is well positioned to continue catching bulk of new customers of thin clients - be it mobile, shared or desktop clients


After HP and Wyse, NComputing has the largest list of thin client customers. So far, the company has delivered more than two million thin clients to over a hundred thousand users in the enterprise market.Besides doing a lot for developing improved and advanced thin clients, NComputing is preferred for being the manufacturer of cheapest thin clients on the market. While being the cheap vendor is not always the great positioning for a computer company, NComputing's cheap products come from a different model than its competitors. Little maintenance, no server infrastructure and low energy consumption make NComputing's solutions appealing to industries such as the education and government sectors. NComputing claims that it has captured over fifteen percent of the US K-12 computing market. With the production of cheaper thin clients, and distinct thin client models, the company is expected to continue grasping more customers in the years to come. Among many thin client vendors, here are the top 5 ones that are currently the market leaders and expected to be on the top in the years to come.

Pano Logic

Pano Logic started just four years ago but yet it is one of the most innovative thin client vendors. They have a tiny product called Pano Device. It is 3.5 inches wide, 3.5 inches long and two inches tall. It is silver or black box that connects to company's virtual infrastructure and provides connections for displays, mice, USB peripherals and keyboards. Pano Device has no internal embedded operating system, internal memory or CPU and applications and drivers and stored centrally in the main data centre. Currently, The Pano Device supports VMware desktop environment and Citrix, and Microsoft support is slated for early 2011.In March 2010, Pano Logic signed a deal with Fujitsu where they will use Pano's thin client technology in their new desktop virtualization solution.In February 2010, Pano Logic secured twenty million dollars in financing from Mayfield fund. While money does not guarantee victory, fundraising at this level certainly looks good to help them progress a lot. Moreover, Pano Device is affordable and unique device in its function and therefore expected to pose a considerable challenge to other vendors on this list.

IGEL Technology

IGEL Technology is a large manufacturer of thin clients in Germany. They get more business from EMEA than the US, but they should challenge the American market as well so that they can grow further.According to International Data Corporation (IDC), IGEL Technology is the world's leader in Linux-based thin clients and the number three manufacturer in terms of revenue. Being the leader of Linux thin clients and according to industry analysts, this company is expected to remain the leader of Linux based thin clients in the years to come. Recently, IGEL Technology released Universal Desktop, a family of thin client desktops that allows users to mix and match different hardware models with different operating systems, including Windows, Linux, Windows CE and Embedded. The Universal Desktop also allows users to choose and use the type of client protocols that they want to use. Together with this and another unique product, the Universal Desktop Converter, that turns legacy computers into remotely managed thin clients, the company will increase its visibility among its investors and clients.

Other Thin Client Vendors

Someone might ask that why Microsoft, Citrix and VMware are not on this list. The answer is that though these vendors are important to the rising thin client market, they are not pioneering the client side of the virtual infrastructure.As for Dell, they moved into the thin client market just about a year ago, so they haven't done or achieved much so far to come in the top list. Sun Microsystems is another company that hasn't dived so much into the thin client system yet. It is at early stages of manufacturing thin clients, but being a large hardware vendor, it can be expected that it will surely give more attention to thin clients and capture a big share of the thin client market in the not so far future.

Senior citizens and elderly are often faced with loneliness and this could cause them health problems. Today, technology can help seniors overcome the loneliness. It could further be a great thing as most of the world is connected through Social Media and the technology! The seniors would not feel lonesome.

Best Steps to Teaching Technology to Elders

  • Technology, gadgets and internet could seem overwhelming, especially for seniors. Although, the internet is quite self explanatory, most elderly are afraid of technology and feel the fear of it. The first step for learning and teaching the technology would be to overcome this fear. Tell your students that technology and internet is no big deal and once you get into it, you'll learn it yourself.

  • Start with the basics. Introduce them to the essential websites like Google and Wikipedia. Tell them how to search anything over the internet. Make them familiar with Wikipedia. Show them the websites of famous newspapers. Tell them that the internet is the most friendly and knowledgeable library on earth.

  • Mention the internet jargon like browser, URL, web address, website, downloading, Facebook, email, virus, antivirus and webcam. These words could seem haunting to a non-familiar person although they are just nothing.

  • Staying safe is crucial for life on cyberspace. One could witness advertisements on most of the websites these days; some of them could lead to malicious websites and content. While most users would learn about safety on their own, it is advisable to teach the seniors about it. Also advise them to use smart passwords and never to remain logged in. Tell them not to reveal their personal information like ID card numbers and bank details online.

  • Let your students have hands-on experience. Do not turn on the gadget or initialize the browser for them. Tell them how to do it and let them do it themselves.

  • Introduce them to the social media on internet. Set up email accounts and ask them to email you as an assignment.

  • The next step shall be Facebook and other social media websites they might opt for. You might need to help them in setting up the account but after that let them play and learn on their own.

Once, the seniors become familiar with the sites and gadgets, they would learn the tricky parts after experience!


Top Benefits of Online Education