Are you getting the iTunes error 50? Do not worry; it is not a big problem. You can resolve this problem in minutes. Read on to find out how.

iTunes Unknown Error -50

The Apple iTunes store is a great one-stop entertainment store offering nearly everything that you can think of, ranging from music and movies to applications for your Apple device. Usually you can download files from the Apple iTunes store to the iTunes application or your Apple device and not run into any problems, but sometimes the process can cause problems. Many users nowadays are getting the iTunes error 50 while downloading purchased content from the iTunes store.

The iTunes error 50 means that the Apple device or the iTunes program couldn't successfully download the file from the Apple iTunes store. This happens when the internet connection times out while downloading the content from the Apple iTunes store. When the connection timeout occurs, the download fails as the server stops sending the file to the player or the computer.

What Causes the Problem To Occur?

People run various type of software on their computers for security, Internet enhancements and other reasons. Most computers now run an Antivirus, Firewall, ad filter, web accelerator or other similar software. These programs may affect how a server sends data to your computer over the internet. These can interfere with the data transmission or freeze it completely, due to which the download slows down or fails completely.

How To Fix the Problem

If you've Antivirus, Firewall, or other software mentioned above installed on your computer, configure each of them to allow the iTunes program to connect to the Internet. Open the options for each software, and add the following Apple domains in it:





For help on adding domains in the software, consult the software documentation, or contact the support department of the software developer to help you do this. Usually this is very easy to do and you will not have any problem in adding the domains in the software. Alternatively, try downloading the file from some other computer, or if you are on a network, discuss the problem with your system administrator.

If you are getting the iTunes -50 error only when you try to download video files, you can correct the problem by deleting cached data of the video you are trying to download. Here is how to delete the cache:

1. Navigate to the folder that holds the cached files for iTunes. It is usually the Downloads folder of the application.

2. Now inside that folder, locate the folder that has same name as your video and ends with .tmp.

3. Now open the iTunes program, go to the Store menu and select Check for Available Downloads.

4. You will be prompted to enter your username and password. Enter these credentials and then click on the Check button.

The download will start and you will no longer receive the iTunes error 50 (-50 error  iTunes).

Also learn: How to Download iTunes on Your Computer

Hewlett Packard

The acquisition of Neoware (a company that develops thin client computers) by HP in October 2007 led them to new heights of the computer industry. This became possible for them by gaining the present thin client market and utilizing their online business knowledge and marketing expertise. From 2007 up to now, HP has captured a lot of thin client customers including leading national and multinational companies and their systems have advanced to the extent that now HP claims to be world's number one manufacturer of thin clients.In addition, with the provision of more thin client choices, more thin client software, HP has gained fame and reputation to a greater extent. This means that other vendors like Wyse will have tough time reaching the customers and it could take them longer to reach the current level of HP.

Wyse Technology

Wyse was the market leader of thin client systems until HP moved ahead with its purchase of Neoware. As of today, Wyse stands at number two and per International Data Corporation (IDC) a market research and analysis firm, together Wyse and HP own about seventy percent of the market. Wyse offers almost everything that HP offers, from desktop thin clients to mobile thin clients, but their PocketCloud technology that allows users to manage their virtual desktops from Apple iPad', iTouch's and iPhone's is ahead of everything else in the market.Wyse has shipped more than ten million thin clients so far and with this speed, it looks like they will continue progressing at this pace. While Wyse isn't at the same level as HP, it is well positioned to continue catching bulk of new customers of thin clients - be it mobile, shared or desktop clients


After HP and Wyse, NComputing has the largest list of thin client customers. So far, the company has delivered more than two million thin clients to over a hundred thousand users in the enterprise market.Besides doing a lot for developing improved and advanced thin clients, NComputing is preferred for being the manufacturer of cheapest thin clients on the market. While being the cheap vendor is not always the great positioning for a computer company, NComputing's cheap products come from a different model than its competitors. Little maintenance, no server infrastructure and low energy consumption make NComputing's solutions appealing to industries such as the education and government sectors. NComputing claims that it has captured over fifteen percent of the US K-12 computing market. With the production of cheaper thin clients, and distinct thin client models, the company is expected to continue grasping more customers in the years to come. Among many thin client vendors, here are the top 5 ones that are currently the market leaders and expected to be on the top in the years to come.

Pano Logic

Pano Logic started just four years ago but yet it is one of the most innovative thin client vendors. They have a tiny product called Pano Device. It is 3.5 inches wide, 3.5 inches long and two inches tall. It is silver or black box that connects to company's virtual infrastructure and provides connections for displays, mice, USB peripherals and keyboards. Pano Device has no internal embedded operating system, internal memory or CPU and applications and drivers and stored centrally in the main data centre. Currently, The Pano Device supports VMware desktop environment and Citrix, and Microsoft support is slated for early 2011.In March 2010, Pano Logic signed a deal with Fujitsu where they will use Pano's thin client technology in their new desktop virtualization solution.In February 2010, Pano Logic secured twenty million dollars in financing from Mayfield fund. While money does not guarantee victory, fundraising at this level certainly looks good to help them progress a lot. Moreover, Pano Device is affordable and unique device in its function and therefore expected to pose a considerable challenge to other vendors on this list.

IGEL Technology

IGEL Technology is a large manufacturer of thin clients in Germany. They get more business from EMEA than the US, but they should challenge the American market as well so that they can grow further.According to International Data Corporation (IDC), IGEL Technology is the world's leader in Linux-based thin clients and the number three manufacturer in terms of revenue. Being the leader of Linux thin clients and according to industry analysts, this company is expected to remain the leader of Linux based thin clients in the years to come. Recently, IGEL Technology released Universal Desktop, a family of thin client desktops that allows users to mix and match different hardware models with different operating systems, including Windows, Linux, Windows CE and Embedded. The Universal Desktop also allows users to choose and use the type of client protocols that they want to use. Together with this and another unique product, the Universal Desktop Converter, that turns legacy computers into remotely managed thin clients, the company will increase its visibility among its investors and clients.

Other Thin Client Vendors

Someone might ask that why Microsoft, Citrix and VMware are not on this list. The answer is that though these vendors are important to the rising thin client market, they are not pioneering the client side of the virtual infrastructure.As for Dell, they moved into the thin client market just about a year ago, so they haven't done or achieved much so far to come in the top list. Sun Microsystems is another company that hasn't dived so much into the thin client system yet. It is at early stages of manufacturing thin clients, but being a large hardware vendor, it can be expected that it will surely give more attention to thin clients and capture a big share of the thin client market in the not so far future.

The following are advantages of using UDP over TCP:

1) UDP does not need the overhead required to detect reliability.

2) It does not need to maintain the unexpected deception of a data flow.

3) UDP requires less processing at the transmitting and receiving of hosts

4) It is simple to use for a network.

5) The operating system does not need to maintain UDP connections information.

6) Data transmission is faster than TCP.

Recommended Use of UDP

UDP is more appropriate to use it on large distributed systems where each host has to communicate with many destinations at the same time. In huge data communication systems, UDP helps reduce bandwidth and in faster data transmission. For example, when UDP is used for media streaming e.g. a movie, large data, generally in GBs is transmitted.  And if a tiny movie content is not transmitted (as UDP doesn't guarantee transmission) we can still understand it.

Also read:

Tag: UDP vs TCP

Many of the computer engineers and users, especially involved in system networking have come across a Domain Controller. Without it, there is no domain, means there can not be a controlled network.

What is definition of a domain controller, what does a domain controller do? Where is it used? How does domain controller work with non Windows-based systems? In this article, we will look at answers to all these questions.

First Learn What a Domain Is?

Before we learn what a domain controller is, knowing what a domain is will help you understand the concept of the domain controller better. So, what is a domain?

The answer to this question is simple: A domain is a set of interconnected resources on a Windows-based platform, such as printers, applications, etc) for a group of users. Users who are part of the domain (who are given usernames and passwords to log on to the domain) are granted specific permissions to access the resources, which may be located on one or more servers in the network.

In other words, a domain is a logical group of computers that maintain a central database, called Active Directory (AD). The database contains the user security and accounts information for the resources in that domain. Any person who uses computers within a domain gets his own account, which is assigned access to resources within that domain.

Now To the Question: What Is a Domain Controller?

What is a domain controller? Well, a domain controller (DC) or network domain controller is a Windows-based computer system that is used for storing user account data in a central database. A domain controller in a computer network is the centerpiece of the Active Directory (AD) services that provides domain-wide services to the users, such as security policy enforcement, user authentication, and access to resources.

A domain controller is a great tool for system administrators, as it allows them to grant or deny users access to system-wide resources, such as printers, documents, folders, network locations etc, via a single username and password. Once a domain controller is configured in a company, office or a building, it takes over the responsibility of responding to user's security authentication requests, such as checking permissions, logging in, etc.

When a client computer joins a domain, any user can login to the domain controller, using that computer. This benefit of that is that no matter which domain member (computer) he logs in from, he is able to access all his personal resources including the files he placed on the Desktop, files in Documents, printers, and his personal desktop preferences.

Domain Controller Compatibility with Operating Systems

A domain controller can communicate with all domain members or workstations but there is a limitation to the Active Directory (AD) System. The limitation is that the domain controller must host a Windows-based operating system. It means that all the domain members must also use the Windows operating system.

Fortunately, this limitation can now be overcome by use of Samba. Samba is open source software that allows workstations running other operating systems like OpenVMS, IBM System 390,Unix and Linux to interact with the domain controller. This is advantageous as because of this network administrators gets much more flexibility in setting up a computer network. It is particularly very useful in large organizations in which different departments need different operating systems.

If you were seeking information on "definition of a domain controller" or "what is a domain controller", hope this article explained that well to you.

Tags: what is a domain controller, what is the main function of a domain controller