Everyone has heard about NASA, but there are many interesting facts about NASA that you probably haven't heard before. So, here comes the 8 top interesting facts about NASA.

1. In case NASA finds life on any other planet, it has a department that has responsibility to make sure that no other life can harm our planet. Furthermore, their duty is to diver ways on how to protect us, our planet and its environment from different types of attacks by the aliens

2. Once three Yemeni men sued NASA for landing their vehicles on Mars. They claimed that Mars is their property and they inherited it from their ancestors.

3. NASA accidentally copied over thousands of tapes that contained videos on moon landing. However, copies were available with other organizations from where NASA restored the videos.

4. NASA runs experiment in which they will pay you for laying on the bed for months so that they can observe how muscles and bones may deteriorate in space when astronaut stay in one place for long times.

5. During the staff training sessions, NASA shows the Armageddon movie and asks the staff to identify scientific inaccuracies in it.

6. The inventor of Super Soacker (water gun), Lonnie Johnson was a NASA scientist.

7. NASA receives 0.005% in funding from the yearly budget.

8. The last of the top facts about NASA is that NASA is aiming to send humans to Mars by 2025. They also plan to build houses and create and make available all the necessities there that are required by humans.

These were top NASA facts, hope you enjoyed these :)

What is Constraint in MS Project?

Constraint is simply a lock on activity's start or finish date. When there is no constraint, any delay on the activity will affect the successor activity - it will also be moved forward. But if you have put a constraint on it, it will not move no matter how much its predecessor activity has delayed (moved backward or backwards)

How Constraints Work?

If you apply a start constraint on a task, its start date will not change. There are multiple types of start constraints in MS Project:

1. Must Start On: The start date can neither go backwards no can it go forward.

2. Start No Later Than:  Activity can start earlier than the planned date but not later.

3. Start No Earlier Than: Activity can start later than the planned date but not earlier.

Since, the constraint no 2 and 3 allows some change in start date, these are called flexible start date constraints.

The finish constrains work similar. The following finish constraints are available in MS Project:

1. Must Finish On: The activity finish date can neither move backward nor forward. An interesting thing is that if you will increase duration of the activity that has Must Finish On constraint, it will increase in duration from the beginning, but its finish date will remain intact.

2. Finish No Later Than: The activity can finish earlier than the planned date but not later.

3. Finish No Earlier Than: The activity can finish later than the planned date but not earlier.

Why Use Constraints?

A constraint is used when a task is limited due to resources or technical reasons. Maybe staff is available for limited time or they cannot start before a certain date. Or perhaps material or machinery that will become available then only activity can start. These are some of the reasons that force activities to start or finish at a specific date and not change from that, in any circumstance. 

Constrains are very rarely used and preferably these should be avoided since completing a task while also considering its constraint is often too difficult or impossible.

Also read:

What is Status Date in MS Project and how to Use it?

Differences between MS Project and Primavera

What Plastic Bags are Made of?

Plastic is made from natural resources such as oil, minerals, gas and coal. However, today mostly plastic bags are made from crude oil and gas.  When these natural products are combined together and processed, plastic is produced.

Other things added in manufacturing of plastic include bacteria, light, heat, color. To create a particular shape from plastic, the materials are molded, fabricated, spun.

The Plastic Bag Manufacturing Process

The plastic manufacturing process involves lighting up fire of about 500 degrees F and melting the plastic with it. The molten plastic goes into a machine where its thickness and shape is determined. After this happens, the shaped plastic is put in the outside air to cool down. 

Once this is done, the plastic bag is sealed from one side then handles are cut, any finally any logos, designs are added to the bag.

Generally, thousands of plastic bags are made in a minute, since the process is very simple and fast.

Now that you know how plastic bags are made, also read:

TCP/IP has an intermediary role between software and a computer network. TCP/IP provides mechanism and rules that allow two computers communicate with each other.

TCP/IP has the following roles:

1. Addressing: TCP/IP assigns a unique address to each computer so that they can identify each other and then communicate.

2. Packeting: It contains a lot of information about data being transmitted. It includes size of the information being sent, the source, the destination, type of data i.e. audio, video, text, etc., source and destination port number, data acknowledgement flag, version of information.

3. Segmenting, reassembly: TCP/IP chops the transmitted data into small chunks and then reassembles them at the destination. Data segmenting is important so that if data were to be distorted or dropped, only a part of it will be effected, and hence only that part will need to be re-transmitted, ensuring lesser bandwidth consumption and faster communication.

4. Sequencing: TCP/IP also enables the computer to put all the transmitted information into right sequence - the sequence it was sent.

5. Data Integrity Insurance: It detects which data has been transmitted, which could not be transmitted or got distorted in transition. It then makes sure that the lost or distorted data is re-transmitted until it is completely and successfully received at the destination.

These were functions of TCP/IP. All information we pull off Internet in our internet browser, or we transmit through a FTP software and many other such data transmission applications use TCP/IP to ensure integrity of information and also to enhance communication performance. TCP/IP therefore is crucial in data transmission and is being used in virtually every data transmission application.

There is another protocol than TCP/IP, it is called UDP/IP. To find out advantages of using TCP over UDP, read this page.

Tags: Functions of TCP/IP, Uses of TCP/IP