Top Advantages of iPad

Advantages of iPad

So you have got a new iPad or planning to get one?  It's a good decision! Find out below the many advantages of iPad to you.


The obvious main advantage of Apple iPads is that they are highly portable, which can be carried around anywhere. This makes your office and personal life easier as you can stay in touch with people anywhere you go, without worrying and the hassle of taking desktop or laptop computer with you, which are heavy, takes space, and not always convenient to take with you.

Easy to Fit & Carry

iPad's weight is around 650 grams, and it measures 9.5 (H) x 7.3 (W). It makes the iPad easy to carry with you, in your pocket, your suitcase, your office briefcase, and you can take it with you anywhere you want easily.

It Turns on Quickly

One of the greatest benefits of using an iPad is that, unlike PC or Mac, the Apple iPad turns on almost instantly when you switch it on.  So if you've got an email to send, use want to use Facebook, calendar to schedule your tasks,  or word processing software or anything, just switch on the iPad and in a couple seconds the iPad is ready to perform your work.

Apps Galore

There are tons of home and business applications available from the Apple iTunes store, out of which hundreds of them are available free of cost. You can download games, and applications for business and home use and all are easily downloadable from the iTunes store, with just a few clicks.

Easy Communication

One of the main benefits of an iPad is that it allows you to conveniently stay in touch with people through web-mail, social networking websites, forums and through other means that are available to us on laptop/desktop computers.

Cheap Apps

There are tons of free and non-free apps available to use on an iPad. If you ever need an app that you couldn't find free, you can purchase the app for a very little cost. The iPad apps are available at a very low cost so you can save money while you perform daily-life computing.

Very Easy to Use

An iPad is very easy to use. You don't need anyone to teach you, you don't need to search for help on how to use it, an iPad is very simple to use and anyone can use it with convenience.

Works Just as an eBook Reader

You can do eBook reading on an iPad. Many people say an iPad is more comfortable than Kindle for eBook reading.

Awesome Battery Life

iPads have excellent battery lives. You can work on an iPad, playing games, surfing internet, and more for more than 11 hours - that's awesome!

Buy Cheaper iPad from Amazon

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Advantages and Disadvantages of VoIP

Advantages and Disadvantages of VoIP 

With VoIP, telephonic connections are established over IP networks. VoIP communications maintain a high sound quality level. Read on to learn about pros and cons of VoIP

Advantages of VoIP (Pros)

One of the biggest advantages of VoIP is that it is extremely economical in terms of the cost charged per call. The only cost charged to the user is of the communication system installed by the user. The higher range a system has, the more cost is charged for the installation process. VoIP provides options to make calls to another VoIP system as well to a normal telephone. However no cost is charged for making VoIP calls from one computer to the other. For the calls made from a computer to a phone, a nominal fee is charged by the VoIP service provider on monthly basis. A computer is not a necessary component in communication through VoIP. Instead of a computer, the user can use a VoIP phone which is very similar to a normal phone. A VoIP phone can be used at place where a satellite based or broadband internet connection is present.

Disadvantages of VoIP (Cons)

There are disadvantages of VoIP technology as well. The biggest disadvantage of VoIP that users experience is the sound quality and in most cases a lot of disturbance is experienced during the calls. However the sound quality does improve with a higher bandwidth and stronger internet connection. VoIP calls that are made from one computer to the other are not uniform in terms of quality. The quality of calls in this case depends on the application software and the internet connection. VoIP phones do not work without electricity and this can be described as a big negative factor. Phones are supposed to be totally independent of electrical power. Hence in this case, the traditional phone has a higher preference rate than a VoIP phone.

These were pros and cons of VoIP

What Is Switching (Telecommunication)

What is Switching:

In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches, which make telephone calls "work" in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information.

The switch is referred to as a "gate" when abstracted to mathematical form. In the philosophy of logic, operational arguments are represented as logic gates. The use of electronic gates to function as a system of logical gates is the fundamental basis for the computer i.e. a computer is a system of electronic switches which function as logical gates.

Before switching is a process of making a connection between end users. When a caller or the source want to call or communicate with the destination this involves switching of various trunks and systems before finally the communication between the source and the destination is made. So in short Switching is the vital component of a telephone exchange that is used to connect the the source and destination.

The main job of the exchange is to connect the two subscribers together. The unit responsible for this is known as a Switching system. Switching is organizing the time slots so that subscribers can communicate with each other. So switch is a system for handling the time slots.

Introduction to Digital Switching:

Digital exchanges establish the connections by rearranging the 8-bit PCMcode words of various telephone signals as dictated by the call request. Digital switch architecture is made up of two elements called T and S for time division switching (T) and space division switching (S) and can be made up of sequences of T and S. For example the AT&T NO 4 ESS is aTSSSST switch, No 3 EAX is an SSTSS and the classical Northern Telecom DMS 100 is TSTS folded. Many of these switches are still available. One thing in common with these switches is that they had multiple space (S) stage. This has now changed. Many of the new switches or enhanced versions of the switches just mentioned have very large capacities and are simply TST or STS switches.

Advantages of Digital Switching:

There are both economic and technical advantages of digital switching;

The economic advantages are discussed below.

There are notably fewer equivalent cross points for a given number of lines and trunks than in a space division switch.

"" A Digital switch is considerably smaller "" It has more common circuitry "" It is easier to achieve full availability with in economic constraints. "" The technical advantage include "" It is regenerative (it does not distort the signal, the output is cleaner then the input signal) "" It is noise resistant. "" It is computer based and thus incorporates all the advantages controlling, managing the hardware. "" The binary message format is compatible with digital computers. It is also compatible with signaling. "" A digital exchange is loss less. There is no insertion loss as a result of a switch inserted in a network.

Building Blocks of a Digital Switch:

The building blocks of a digital switch include:

  • Time Switch
  • Space Switch

Time Switch:

In a most simplified way a time switch changes the time slot of the incoming traffic. As we know that a time slot in conventional PCMcontains 8 bits and that a basic frame is 125 microsecond in duration. Time slot interchanging involves moving the data contained in each time sot form the incoming bit stream to an outgoing bit stream but with different time slot arrangement in accordance with the destination of each time slot. What is done of course is to generate a new frame for transmission at the appropriate switch outlet.

Obviously to accomplish this at least one time slot must be stored in memory (write) and then called out of memory in a changed position (read). The operations must be controlled in some manner, and some of these control actions must be kept in memory together with the software managing such actions. Typical control functions are time slot "idle" or "busy".

Fundamental Blocks of a Time Switch:

Now we can identify three basic fundamental blocks of a time switch.

  • 1. Memory for Speech (Buffer)
  • 2. Memory for Control (Control Buffer)
  • 3. Time Slot counter or processor

Memory Buffer:

The time switch consists of a buffer memory also called time slot interchange memory for storing the time slot information that is speech to be switched.

Control Buffer:

Control memory has as many locations as there are time slots, contains the list i.e. the order of the cells from which unloading is to take place. It also contains the information where to switch a particular call.


There is a processor in the time switch handling and coordinating various operations of a time switch.

Implementation of a Time Switch:

For implementation of a Time Switch there are two choices:

  • 1. Sequential write, random read
  • 2. Random write, sequential read

Sequential write, random read: In sequential write and random read case the time slots are written into speech memory as they appear in the incoming bit stream. Then based on the discussion of the control memory the speech signals are read form speech memory and put on the output time slots. Random write, sequential read:

In this case the incoming time slots are written into the memory in order of appearance in the outgoing bit stream. This mean the incoming time slot are written into memory in the desired output order. The writing of incoming time slots into a speech memory can be controlled by a simple time slot counter and can be sequential.

Space Switch:

Unlike the time switch the space switch operates without interchanging the time slots. The space switch can switch any 8-bit PCM word from the incoming highways to any outgoing highways without the change of time slot.

A space switch consists of a cross point matrix made up of logic gates (AND gate) that allow the switching of time slots in the spatial domain. The switch into pattern determined by the required network connectivity organizes these PCM time slot bit streams. The matrix consists of a number of input horizontals and a number of verticals with a logical gate at each cross point.

The array consists of a number of M inputs horizontals and N output verticals. For a given time slot the appropriate logic gate is enabled and the time slot passes from the input horizontal desired vertical output. The other horizontals, each serving a different serial stream of time slots, can have the same time slot switched into vertical enabling their gates. In the next time slot position a completely different path configuration could occur, again allowing time slots from the horizontals to be switched to the selected verticals. The selection of the course is a function of how the traffic is to be routed at that moment for calls in progress or being set up.

The exact sequence in which the AND gates are turned on and off is indicated in the control memory. The control addresses in the control memory designate the AND gate to be turned on for each time slot.

Difference between a Time and a Space Switch

When connections are made via a time switch the PCM words change their time slots between the input and the output.

When connections are made via space switch the PCM words change their highways between the input and the output, but retain their original time slot.

Modern Construction Techniques

One of the the important steps in a construction project is to design the layout of the building. Several design tools are available which make these tasks less time consuming and more error free. This article highlights modern construction techniques that are used in today's projects.

Usage of Automated Tools To Design Layouts

The important step in a construction project is to design the layout of the building. A company architect spends months to design the layout. In the older times, the entire layout had to be designed using manual methods. The only resources available to the architect were a paper, pencil and sketching utensils. However at present, several graphic design tools are available which make these tasks less time consuming and more error free. The designs which are made can also be checked according to the symmetrical rules and regulations. Most of these tools have a very easy to use interface and a lot of technical knowledge is not required. These tools provide a very convenient and compatible way to design layouts as the designer make innumerable modifications.

Quality Assurance

Before a constructed building is completed, it is very important to test the quality level. For instance in a construction project, raw materials carry a very high level of importance. Nowadays, the quality level of these raw materials can be checked though automated methods. For instance in case of steel, the exact percentage of iron contained in it can be evaluated. These checks ensure a higher level of quality in the constructed product.

Calculated Project Management

Construction companies design a logical time line and feasibility layout according to the size and scalability of the project. In this way, they have a complete idea of the duration and human skill to be spent on each stage. Certain construction companies have their customized applications that assist in calculated project management according. However other companies depend on the standardized applications available in the market. Project management tools result in saving both human and financial resources.

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