The characteristics of a product manufactured are largely determined by the engineering properties of the material used. Therefore, the engineering properties should be thoroughly analyzed before the finalization of the material selection
Importance of Engineering Materials
Different engineering materials can be used for the manufacture of various products, and the selection of the engineering material depends upon their mechanical properties, the type of product, functions desired, quantities to be manufactured and numerous other engineering factors. Therefore, all these factors must be considered in the design of a product, since the quality and characteristics of the final product manufactured will be affected by these factors.
What Are Mechanical Properties
Mechanical properties forecast the behavior of particular materials when subjected to specific loads, under certain conditions. The mechanical properties are determined by the performance of test and procedures, utilizing test equipment in a laboratory. The important mechanical properties that should be considered in the manufacture of engineering products are mentioned below:
The yield strength of a body is the stress at which plastic deformation of the material starts. Before reaching the yield point, elastic deformation will occur, and the material will be restored to its earlier shape on the removal of the stress. After crossing the yield point, certain deformation will be perpetual and cannot be reversed. The information concerning the yield point is essential in the design of a component because it signifies the maximum load limit, and any further increase may cause failure of the component. The property of yield strength is essentially used in the manufacture processes, such as forging and rolling.
The tensile strength of a material indicates the likely behavior of the material when subjected to tensile loads, and is utilized in the determination of other important engineering properties such as elongation, yield strength, and elasticity. The tensile strength of a material is determined by the loading of a specimen, and measurements of the load and the elongation of the specimen.
Ultimate Tensile Strength
The ultimate tensile strength of a substance is the greatest stress that it can withstand, and it indicates the amount of stress at the breaking point of a material, after which the material may fail, or the structural strength of the material may not be maintained.
Other engineering properties that should be considered in the selection of a material are ductility, resilience, hardness, and plastic deformation.