Reasons for Construction Failures

We read a lot in papers that fully constructed buildings and towers fall, resulting in innumerable deaths. There are various reasons for construction failures, which include the following: 

Employment of Unprofessional Workers

Usually the workers who are involved in a construction project are hired on contractual basis. Since they are not permanent employees they are not granted enough time to work well and to screen their work.Sometimes people who have never been involved in a construction project are enrolled in the work. There is not much guidance given to them in areas of mixing and cement application and doing other construction work. It is assumed that workers are quite aware of their job requirements. As it is not a white collar job thus there is nothing like interview sessions.

Inadequate Material Standards

As mentioned earlier, construction projects are on contractual basis so low cost materials are bought to save in financial terms. It is obvious that cement is the most important component in the construction process. Low quality cement is cheap but it causes a huge decline in the standard of the constructed building. The time for wear and tear is reduced and the building texture becomes more vulnerable to factors like dust and train. As a result the outside texture of constructed building stats to erode at a very quick rate and with the passage of time, the overall structure becomes weaker and weaker. Hence ultimately the building falls resulting in irrecoverable human loss.

Hasty Efforts

Some construction companies stress on the quantity factor in stead of the quality. They have multiple projects at a time. Their goal is to finish the maximum number of projects to maximize their monetary belongings. As a result they are careless in areas like product quality and process monitoring. A construction project deals with the lives of various people who reside in these buildings for years and years. Hence a construction company should work sincerely and with a dedicated approach to serve these people.

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Modern Forging Trends: Seamless Die Forging, Die Forging

Forging iron has been quite distressful in earlier times and was not inevitable since there was no way out not forging it. This is because in our daily lives we use many things which requires forging like automobiles, locks, keys and various other things which contain any metallic element in them. This is why technicians have come with new, specialized and much more convenient forging tools and forging machines which facilitate millions. It is through ages the lust of man to carve the raw metal into the shape of his dreams has transformed through evolution into the modern shape, which is very much evident to the mankind in the current era. Forging has therefore been at the service of mankind since long.

Die Forging

Of all forging techniques die forging is the most common. Earlier this technique was used by blacksmiths however with the latest innovations in this area forging dies are used elsewhere at more complicated metals. This forging technique has the ability to produce exact 3-D images of the specimen given through a special process. Forging dies are used to forge aluminum, steel, titanium and much more harder metals. In this technique the impressions or images are placed on two or more specimen forging metal plates. Then these specimen metals are put over the piles of metals on which the image has to copied on. The forging dies fibers work by blocking the flow of electrons in a metal and this blockage of electrons is used to mould the metal in any required shape.

Seamless Roll Forging

Seamless roll ring forging is also one of the quite highlighted and popular forging techniques. This technique is used to mould harder metals in a much easier and quicker way. A huge hole is made in the center of a metal which is to be forged and then that hole is elongated to form a ring. The measurements of the ring can differ. This ring is then further manipulated to form shapes and images from a specimen. Seamless roll ring forging is used in the processing of aerospace, off highway equipment, mining etc and mechanics claim that there is no replacement for this technique.

These modern forging techniques have lent a great amount of ease and convenience to the forging industry which is why it is achieving heights of success lately.

Forging Frequently Asked Questions

Forging Introduction

Forging is a process in which metal is pressed, squeezed or pounded to turn it into a specific shape. Forged metal is stronger than that manufactured by any other process. Forged parts are durable, long lasting and trusted by all industries.

For more on forging you may read History of Forging, basics of forgingdifferent forging methods, advantages & disadvantages of forging. The following is a useful list of forging FAQ for your knowledge about forging.

Which Metals are Forged?

Any metal on the earth can be forged. Some of the metals that are most commonly forged include steel, aluminum, copper, brass, stainless steel, carbon, nickel and alloy that contains cobalt.

In USA and Canada how many people are employed in forging industry?

It is estimated that around 45000 people are employed in the forging industry. Most commonly, every industry employees between 50 to 500 persons, each.

What equipment is used to produce forged parts?

There are many types of equipment used in forging, the most common ones are:

Presses. These are commonly used with their driving force of up to 50000 tons. Presses are used to squeeze the metal vertically in high pressure.

Hammers. These are also used with a driving force of up to 23000 kgs.

Upsetters. These are also presses for horizontal forging. Ring rollers are type of upsetters that turn a hollow round piece of metal against a rotating roll under great pressure, to produce a one-piece ring.

What does forging industry do?

This is quite a big industry, and they do quite a lot of thing including:

a) make equipment and parts  for their own company, which are later used in forging of other parts. This is called captive forging.

b) make standard equipment, tools and accessories that are commonly sold everywhere. This is often called catalog forging

c) make custom forged parts, on customer orders. This is referred to as custom forging.

Who buys forged parts?

There are 10s' of industries that use forged parts. They include automotive industry, airline industry, NASA, construction, agriculture and mining companies.

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Latest Forging Techniques

What is Forging?

The first idea that comes to our minds when we hear the words 'forging' is something illegal. However in the recent times forgery and forging have become commonplace phenomena. This is because metal and steel have invaded our lives. Such instruments are products of forging which is done by the manufacturer.  Earlier when science and technology did not excel as much as it has now the traditional methods used for forging were used which were quite strenuous than the latest forging method.

New Forging Techniques and Tools

In the modern world with the advancement in technology and mechanics new and convenient forging tools and specialized forging machines have come into the use. Technicians have come up with various techniques of forging iron while some have come up with unique and effective stainless steel forging techniques which are being successfully employed throughout the world.

Cold and Open Forging

Among all renowned techniques of forging cold forging and open forging stay on the top of the list. Open forging is one of the traditional ways of forging which has been used since ages and has been satisfying people with its results. In this technique the metal you are to forge is brought near and optimum temperature where it is soft enough to work and take a new shape which is decided by the manufacturer. This optimum temperature may differ for different metals according to their valency and general make up. After the optimum temperature is attained the manufacturer shall employ some physical strength and use a hammer or any other forging tools exactly on the metals' anvil and shape it according to his will and requirement. This technique (as the process itself suggests) is quite physically fatiguing yet gives complete control to the manufacturer to shape the metal in to what ever size and shape he wants.

Drop Forging

Drop forging is also a traditional and mechanical way of forging iron and other metals. This technique has been widely employed by blacksmiths for putting metal into any die. Drop forging also requires the use of a hammer or any other new forging tools in order to shape the metal in a desirable way. usually this technique is used to insert excess metal in an object and is a common way of treating and making components of automobiles.

Forging since has become a daily life practice and need you shall get to find its various ways which add convenience to your business. Earlier forging iron was a great issue but now due to developments the once laborious job has become an easy and executive one.

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Forging Defects that Occur on a Forged Part

The product made through forging has more strength and is made more precise, compared to products made by other manufacturing processes. Unfortunately even forged products can have some defects if proper care is not taken during the forging process. This article describes forging defects that normally occur on a forged part.

Improper Grain Flow:

This is caused by improper design of the die. The improper die design makes the flow of the metal in the wrong direction.

Cold Shut:

This appears as small cracks in the forged part’s corners. This happens mainly due to improper design of the die uses.

Scale Pits:

Scale Pits are irregular lining on the surface of the forged part. This is mainly caused due to improper cleaning of the stock used.

Die Shift:

This is primarily caused by the wrong alignment of the die halve, making the two halves of the part to be improperly shaped.

Flakes:

Flakes are internal ruptures, caused by the improper cooling of the forged part. Rapid cooling to the part caused the exterior to cool too fast, causing internal fractures.

Unfilled Section:

Some section of the die cavity is not complete filled by the flowing metal. This is caused by the improper design of the forging die, or wrong use of forging technique.

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