We have become very much dependent on fossils for obtaining energy to meet our everyday's energy needs. How long can these fossils remain and survive to serve our needs? Is renewable energy not the perfect alternative to fossil energy? 

Worldwide Energy Requirements

People and today's scientists seem to have a lot of knowledge and enthusiasm about the growth and increased production of our worldwide energy requirements from alternative energy sources. We have alternative energy sources available with us in abundance in form of wind, solar and water. These are conventional sources of alternative energy that are becoming very common in use. The everyday research, development and increased enthusiasm that everyone has today for the alternative energy has already created a feel of complacence that our future energy needs

In our global society, alternative energy is an interesting concept, which simply means energy that is extracted from sources other than the usual and primary energy supply such as oil, coal and natural gas. At this age, we all very heavily depend on these three kinds of fossil fuel. We heavily rely on fossil fuel as the principal source of energy for heating, transportation and other necessities. would easily be met.

Renewable Energy

Even though, a lot of progress has been made and is still being made for the promotion and advancement of renewable energy, it is providing only seven percent of the world's energy production (Source: Energy Information Agency). On the other hand, the fossil fuels, along with nuclear energy (provides six percent of the world's energy supplies) are providing 94% of the world's energy resources. It is not likely that nuclear energy will become a major source of world energy in the future. It is because of public insistency and the dangers associated with letting loose the power of the atom. Despite that, many nations see its huge potential and are pressurizing for the further promotion of nuclear energy.

Fossil Fuels

While fossil fuels are capable of fulfilling our daily life needs very efficiently, there is also a problem with them, that is, the fossil fuels are non-renewable and that the available amount of them are decreasing very fast. The bitter truth is that one day; this limited available fuel will be depleted.

Fossil fuels are formed from animals and plants that existed billions of years ago and became buried deep below the earth's surface where their remains conjointly transmuted into the combustible materials we use today for fuel. The earliest fossil fuel remains are estimated to be 500 millions years old, this is supposedly when the animals and birds first appeared on Earth. The later fossil deposits began forming about five million years ago. The fact is that with the rate the fossil fuel is being consumed today, their formation can not happen quick enough to satisfy our today's and future demands.

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Construction cranes have a significant contribution in the growth of the construction industry. The construction cranes include tower cranes, mobile cranes, truck mounted cranes, and several other types. The selection of construction cranes is based basically on the loads to be lifted. 

Essentials Of Construction Cranes

A construction crane is basically a machine that is used for lifting of heavy objects. A crane has a drum for wire, and chains with sheaves used for lifting and lowering loads. The loads may also be moved in a horizontal direction. Mechanical advantage is created for lifting of heavy loads.

Cranes are widely used in the construction industry for numerous applications. Cranes are also used in several other engineering applications. However, construction cranes have contributed significantly in the construction of huge tall structures. Several construction cranes are employed in the construction industry, including tower cranes, mobile cranes, and telescope cranes. The self erecting tower crane is assembled at the construction site. Construction cranes can be fixed at the ground, or located on a special vehicle that is designed for these applications. Construction cranes are categorized into a tower form, or a derrick equipped with suitable pulleys and cables.

Tower Cranes

Tower cranes are one of the important construction cranes that are widely used in the construction field. Tower cranes are rigidly fixed with the ground that facilitates the attainment of height, and increase the lifting capability. Tower cranes are widely being employed for the erection of tall structures. The essential parts of a tower crane include a base, tower, and the slewing mechanism. The tower stand is secured to a huge concrete pad that is used for supporting the crane. The concrete pads are formed much before the crane erection to ensure a firm concrete foundation. The base is fixed with the mast that provides the height to the tower crane. The mast top is joined with the slewing unit that has motor and gear for the crane rotation. The major components of the slewing unit are the working arm or the extended horizontal jib, a short horizontal arm, and the operator cab. The load is carried by the long horizontal jib by a trolley that operates along the jib.

Types Of Tower Cranes

The main kinds of tower cranes that are generally used in the construction industry are the Self Erect and Assisted Erect tower crane. Both the types of these tower cranes are extensively used with numerous jib configurations. The details of these tower cranes are as under:

Tower Crane Self Erect

This type of tower crane is basically intended to be transported, simply and rapidly, for fast erection. Some of the self erect cranes are equipped with generator, and are thus totally self contained.

Tower Crane Assisted Erect

This kind of tower crane is generally bigger with an enhanced lifting capacity, compared to the Self Erect cranes. It is designed to be built at the construction site, normally utilizing a mobile crane. Therefore, it is called an assisted crane.

Tower Crane Working

The tower crane functions by using the principle of moment or counterbalance. The force of counterbalance is created by the appropriate location of weights at the counter jib end. It is generally located opposite to the working jib. The counterweight is dependent upon the working jib length, and these details are provided by the crane manufacturer. Maximum tower crane stability is ensured by keeping the counterweights at a low level. Therefore, counterweights are normally located at the base of the tower cranes, and linked with the working jib through a wire rope.

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The power production from wind power plants is unlike as from the usual power plants. This is largely due to the individualist character of the wind energy. This necessitates particular controls and various kinds of electrical generators. For a concise clarification read this article. 

Wind Energy - How Does it Produce Electricity?

In a usual power plant, the input energy follows the output as the electrical load. In a wind power plant, the input energy control is restricted. In addition, the available resources are to be utilized, and at the same time the electrical characteristics are to be balanced. Wind power plants are not like this. The normal power plant utilizes a synchronous generator. It runs at a speed determined by the grid frequency. Accurate control of the input energy is likely when the electric load on the generator is altered. This efficiently manages the speed to correspond with the grid frequency.

In the generator of wind turbine, management of the input energy that is torque from the rotary motion of the wind turbine is not simple. The input energy by wind speeds changes in a broad range. The majority of the producers restrain wind speeds within a limit of 5 m/s to 30 m/s. There can also be unexpected breeze of wind. The generator attempts to turn at a speed close to the synchronous speed determined by the grid frequency. The generator is unduly stressed due to this distinct effect. The usual synchronous generator cannot react to these abrupt changes. To overwhelm these troubles various kinds of electric generators are used of in a wind power plant.

The most commonly utilized is the asynchronous generator and the variable frequency technique. A particular extent of mechanical control is obtainable in the wind turbine blades to manage the speed.

Wind Energy System

What happens when the wind speed rises further than the maximum power output ability of the generator?

  • In wind turbines that are controlled by pitch, a rotation of the individual blades avoids transfer of the total wind force to the generator. This is similar to varying the course of the sail in a boat. This kind of wind turbine needs an electrically or hydraulically functioning pitch control system.

  • In wind turbines with stall control, the wind turbine blades produce aerodynamic forces that decrease the output torque of the turbines at top wind speeds.

  • With change in the wind direction, anemometers can sense these alterations and runs the yaw mechanism that rotates the turbine to confront the wind.

  • When the wind speeds are not in control, the turbine revolution halts by the utilization of mechanical or hydraulic brakes.

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Purpose of Engine Oil

Engine oil cleans the engine and it takes away pollutants and destructive chemicals that are non-desirable results of combustion. In addition, the engine is cooled by the oil by transmitting heat that is produced by the combustion cycle. The oil prevents the components from being damaged with increased temperature. It improves the sealing around the significant parts inside the engine and reduces the exposure of the parts to oxygen. Lastly, engine oil holds additives that are able to deactivate acids that build up due to the combustion process. With something that is significant to the functioning of the engine and the complete vehicle, it is essential that the oil is correctly maintained and that the proper oil is utilized in an engine. The car manual is really the right place to read when aiming to choose oil that should be used in the engines. The manual will mention the oil that is suggested by the initial producer of the vehicle. This oil was used when the engine testing was completed at the initial design.

Oil Recommendation

The recommended engine oil will be mentioned as a series of numbers and letters in the car manual. For instance, 5W40 oil is engine oil. The two digits in the oil number refer to the oil viscosity. The number 5 before W is the cold oil viscosity. The number 40 after W is the hot oil viscosity. The lower the cold oil viscosity, the improved the engine starting in cold climates.

Different Types of Engine Oil

There are many different types of engine oil: Synthetic, semi-synthetic and mineral oil are all forms of engine oils. Synthetic oils are planned in laboratories. Mineral oils are found in nature and are developed to make the engine oil. Although synthetic oils are deliberated in laboratories, they can be obtained from mineral oil. The disparity is that some of the harmful characteristics of mineral oil are separated from the traits of synthetic oils. Like, synthetic oil is less expected to produce acid in the engine. Semi-synthetic oil is a combination of mineral and synthetic oils.

Oil Management

To keep a vehicle operational and working at the optimum, the oil and oil filters must be replaced regularly. Most vehicle manufacturers list the recommendations for oil and filter change based on the kilometers driven by the vehicle. It is imperative that the oil is changed on a regular basis because at high temperatures, engine oil may fail and become ineffective as a lubricant. If the parts are not being lubricated efficiently, parts may wear out frequently, and the engine life will be decreased. In addition, the oil additives will be used, and will not properly neutralize acid. If the oil is not changed, it will saturate and the impurities will not be removed from important engine components.

When the oil is changed, the filter must also be replaced so that clean oil does not become dirty due to the contaminants that have accumulated in the filter. With the passage of time, the filter may become blocked if it is not replaced. Between the oil changes, the level of oil level must be checked to ensure that the oil is adequate in the engine. The level of must be checked minimum twice a month and before any extended journey. Furthermore, the oil must be completed to the top mark on the dipstick.

This was about different types of oil, oil management and purpose of engine oil.