In any scheduling software you enter schedule then save baseline and enter actual information. Find out the difference between these 3 types of information.

Schedule:

This is the planned start, finish and duration of the activity. In any scheduling software we first enter schedule, which is how we want the activities to perform.

Baseline:

Once the schedule has been finalized and approved, we save/create baseline. Baseline is the exact copy of your schedule. 

The reason why we create the copy of the schedule is comparison. When the activities start and you want to compare actual start, finish and actual duration with the originally planned information, we use baseline for the comparison. 

Note that we do not compare actual progress with the Schedule, although Schedule is also the original plan and that baseline was copied from that! This is due to the reason that schedule gets rescheduled every time we enter actual values. For example, an activity has 10 day duration and until today 50% (5 days) work should be done but only 25% (2.5 days) work is done because the work could not be done due to thunderstorm. This activity will complete 2.5 days (25%) later than planned. Hence, the Scheduled finish date will change. Therefore, we can not compare actual progress with current information, we need to compare with with what was originally planned, and saved, which was in the baseline.

Note that in some scheduling software, baseline was earlier called 'Target'. It becomes easier to understand baseline when we call it Target instead of baseline, since target is what we have to achieve, once the schedule has been entered and activities have started.

Actual:

This is the real progress of the activities. Actuals should ideally be meeting the original plan (baseline), but this usually does not happen. When the activities start, we enter actuals such as actual start, finish, actual duration, actual man-hours and actual costs, etc. In scheduling software, we usually only enter actual work completed, in terms of duration (effort/man hours), and the software automatically calculates the actual cost, and other actual information based on actual duration/effort/man hours you have entered.

Solar Car History

The very first solar car was invented in 1955. It was a 15-inch vehicle that was created by William Cobb from General Motors. 

The first car which a person could drive was built in 1962. A car from 1912 was converted to run on solar energy. In 1977, Alabama University built a proper solar car which efficient and better quality. In 1980 the engineering department of Tel Aviv University created a solar car, which was even more powerful. In recent years, several automobile companies have started producing solar powered cars and these come in a variety of shapes, design and specs.

How Much Light Does a Solar Car Need?

Diffuse sunlight from a cloudy sky will normally provide enough energy for the car to run. However, solar radiation is very variable from place to place, time to time and season to season, which can affect how fast a battery can be charged and power the car. In a well assembled car kit given suitable lighting conditions the solar cell supplies more than enough electricity to spin the wheels and propel the car.

When Will We Finally Be Able To Use Solar Power Cars?

Solar powered cars, boats, racing cars are already there and being used globally. These care will more commonly be seen on roads in near future, and when world's oil will become scarce, production and demand of these cars will increase manifold.

What Types of Batteries are Used in Solar Powered Cars?

Most commonly used lead acid batteries are used in solar powered cars. There are other batteries that but are rarely used, such as Nicad (nickel cadmium), NiFe (nickel iron) and some other but these are much more costly than the lead acid batteries.

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You have heard of early and late dates when studying project management, project scheduling or in project management software like Primavera. Below, I will describe early and late dates in easy words.

Early Dates

Early Start:

The earliest possible date the remaining work for the activity can begin. This date is calculated by the project scheduler based on activity relationships, schedule constraints, and resource availability. The Early Start equals the Remaining Start unless you preserve the scheduled early dates during leveling.

Early Finish:

The earliest possible date the activity can finish. This date is calculated by the project scheduler based on activity relationships, schedule constraints, and resource availability. The Early Finish equals the Remaining Finish unless you preserve the scheduled early dates during leveling

Late Dates

Late Start:

The latest possible date the remaining work for the activity must begin without delaying the project finish date. This date is calculated by the project scheduler based on activity relationships, schedule constraints, and resource availability. The Late Start equals the Remaining Late Start unless you preserve the scheduled late dates during leveling.

Late Finish:

The latest possible date the activity must finish without delaying the project finish date. This date is calculated by the project scheduler based on activity relationships, schedule constraints, and resource availability. The Late Finish equals the Remaining Late Finish unless you preserve the scheduled late dates during leveling.

Cars powered by solar/sun energy are called solar powered cars. Solar cars have many similarities to the regular car. They have a motor, steering wheel, seats, brakes and more.

Solar powered cars use solar panels to obtain energy from the sun, which is then converted into electric energy for the running of the car. If there is no sun or very little sun light, the car photovoltaic cells on the solar panel will not get energy and so the car will only operate for limited distances.

These cars were first built by some universities then its research and development continued from there. The research on solar powered cars was focused on solar cell design, car power requirement, air-conditioning and heating.

The solar panel on a solar powered car contains hundreds of photovoltaic cells. They convert sunlight into electricity. Unlike objects that also use solar energy, solar cars can use different solar cell technologies that often involve monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon and gallium arsenide.

Solar powered cars usually are designed with distinctive shapes because designers' objective is to minimize drag and car weight and maximize the exposure to sun light. The design considerations also involve the safety of the car.

Advantages Of Solar Cars

  • Unlike regular cars, solar energy powered cars are able to utilize their full power at any speed.
  • Solar powered cars do not require any expense for running.
  • Solar cars are quite.
  • Solar cars require very low maintenance.
  • Solar cars produces no harmful emissions.
These were advantages of solar powered cars.

Disadvantages Of Solar Cars

  • Solar cars don't have speed or power that regular cars have.
  • Solar powered cars can operate only for limited distances is there is no sun.
  • If it is dark out for many days, the car battery will not charge and you this can seem as a  problem to many problem. This is the main reason why people don't rely on solar cars.
  • A good solar powered car is expensive. It will cost $200,000 or more.
  • Parts used in solar cars are not produced in large quantity so they are expensive.

These were the disadvantages of solar powered cars. Also read: Components of a Solar Car

Find here technical specification of Concorde:

  • Length 203 feet
  • Height: 11.4 meters
  • Wingspan: 8 25.5 meters
  • Empty weight: 173,500 pounds  (78690 kgs)
  • Max. take-off weight: 408,000 pounds (185,066 kgs)
  • Passenger capacity: 100
  • Max speed: 1448 mph (2330 kph)
  • Range:  4505 miles (7250 kms)
  • Max elevation: 60,000 feet
  • Rate of climb:  1524 miles/min (2452 kms/min)

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