Stunning Stadiums in the World

Within the period of global sports and games events, stadiums have become the vital factor of each country. All over the globe, there are lots of spectacular stadiums where contests including outdoor sports activities, concerts, or other events are arranged. A stadium usually includes a field or a stage designed according to climate, location, civilization, design, or history. The world stadiums range from multi-million-dollar, all-seated arenas to conventional old round grounds that could most likely do with a bit of TLC and brightly painted walls. In Africa there are total 739 stadiums, Asia having 1283 stadiums, America keeping 294 stadiums, Europe having 4311 stadiums and Middle East having 633 stadiums.

All of these are acquainted with iconic structures for example Brazil's Maracana, the mark II Wembley in London and Spain's Santiago Bernabeu and Camp Nou, but many others are also worth mentioning here. The top best stunning and amazing stadiums in the world include:

Stunning Stadiums in the World

1. Allianz Arena: The first in the list of world's amazing stadiums is Allianz Arena. It is a football stadium located within the north of Munich, Germany. It is the very first stadium of the world, having ever changing colors on its outer surface. It turns into red colour when Bayern Munich show performance, and blue when 1860 Munich performs and transparent white color is seen when the German National team plays.

2. Beijing National Aquatics Center: it is National Aquatics Middle or the Water Cube, situated in Beijing, China. This stadium was made and inaugurated on January 28, 2008.

It was constructed alongside Beijing National Arena in the Olympic Green and supplied for the swimming contests. The stadium's structure came up with the idea of jacketing the cube with bubbles, representing water. National Team plays.

3. Yoyogi National Gymnasium: it is situated in Yoyogi Park; Tokyo, Japan is really a famous area for its suspended roof pattern and design. The arena, created by Kenzo Tange (a famous architecture) was built in between 1962 and 1965. With 13,292 chairs including 9,080 stand seats, 4,124 area seats and 88 œroyal box seating, Yoyogi National Gymnasium is now mainly used for ice hockey and basketball.

4. Beijing National Stadium: it is also known as the Bird's Nest. This stadium located in the Olympic Green, Beijing, China. The arena consists of 9,000 seating for the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. Beijing National Stadium which expenses the $426 million is famous for its biggest steel structure in all around the world.

5. Olympiastadion Stadium: This beautiful stadium is situated within the heart of the Olympia Park in northern Munich, Germany, Having the spacious capacity of 80,000 seats, the arena is proved to be a most beautiful place to host many major football matches including the 1974 World Cup Final, the Euro Final, the European Cup Finals of 1979, 1993 and 1997. It is made up of Acrylic glass and steel cables.

             Beijing National Aquatics Center                                           Beijing National Stadium                               
  
          Olympiastadion Stadium

 

The 2 Different Types of Critical Paths

Most people seem to have knowledge of only one type of Critical Path. Moreover, what critical path really is, many have incorrect understanding about it. In this guide, I will explain the two different types of critical paths and you will also learn which one is used in what circumstance.

The two types of Critical Paths are:

1. Longest Path

This type of Critical Path comprises activities which are longest in length than other activities in the project. Longest path could be made of independent activities, in which the one with the longest duration will be critical. Alternatively, the Longest Path could be made of different set of linked activities, the set with the longest duration is Critical in this case.

You might have wondered, why longest length matters and why does that make the activity to be called critical? Well, the answer is simple. The activities with the longest length require more cost, more resources, more time. Furthermore, these activities have more combined risk, more issues. Considering all this, the longest duration activity / set of activities are called critical activities, and these are also called critical path.

You might have heard that the Critical Path determines the length of the project. Well, it is not always the case. Imagine there is an activity that is neither has a predecessor, nor does it have a longest duration, but it falls at end of the project and is independent. Hence it gives you project finish date. Since this activity is not part of activities that finish before it that includes the Critical Path, we can now not say that your Critical Path is determining the total project duration because the last project activity is not part of your Critical Path.

This type of Critical Path is not often used since it is not very important to look for those activities with more no of resources or more cost/risk/issues, etc. The more realistic type of Critical Path is the one described below and that one should always be used.

2. Activities with 0 Total Float 

This type of Critical Path does not have a name but it is formed when one or more activities have Total Float equals to 0. Before I describe this Critical Path type further, first let me explain what Total Float it

Total Float is number of days an activity can be delayed without delaying the project finish date. In other words Total Float is how much you can move activity forward without letting it cross project Finish date.

So, if your project finish date is for example 31 March and you have an activity with finish date 31 March, it's Total Float will be 0 days because it can not be moved further now. Such an activity will become critical. Now, if that activity has one or more predecessor activities, all these will automatically have Total Float 0, since if any of these moves forward, it will push the last one also, and project finish date will be moved forward.

This type of Critical Path is mostly used and is more realistic than the Longest Path. The engineers and project monitoring staff should keep an eye on activities with Total Float 0, so as to ensure these do not delay, since delay in these activities mean your project will be delayed.

Tags: Different Types of Critical Paths, Critical Path in Project Management, What is Critical Path

Primavera: Difference between Schedule, Baseline and Actual Information

In any scheduling software you enter schedule then save baseline and enter actual information. Find out the difference between these 3 types of information.

Schedule:

This is the planned start, finish and duration of the activity. In any scheduling software we first enter schedule, which is how we want the activities to perform.

Baseline:

Once the schedule has been finalized and approved, we save/create baseline. Baseline is the exact copy of your schedule. 

The reason why we create the copy of the schedule is comparison. When the activities start and you want to compare actual start, finish and actual duration with the originally planned information, we use baseline for the comparison. 

Note that we do not compare actual progress with the Schedule, although Schedule is also the original plan and that baseline was copied from that! This is due to the reason that schedule gets rescheduled every time we enter actual values. For example, an activity has 10 day duration and until today 50% (5 days) work should be done but only 25% (2.5 days) work is done because the work could not be done due to thunderstorm. This activity will complete 2.5 days (25%) later than planned. Hence, the Scheduled finish date will change. Therefore, we can not compare actual progress with current information, we need to compare with with what was originally planned, and saved, which was in the baseline.

Note that in some scheduling software, baseline was earlier called 'Target'. It becomes easier to understand baseline when we call it Target instead of baseline, since target is what we have to achieve, once the schedule has been entered and activities have started.

Actual:

This is the real progress of the activities. Actuals should ideally be meeting the original plan (baseline), but this usually does not happen. When the activities start, we enter actuals such as actual start, finish, actual duration, actual man-hours and actual costs, etc. In scheduling software, we usually only enter actual work completed, in terms of duration (effort/man hours), and the software automatically calculates the actual cost, and other actual information based on actual duration/effort/man hours you have entered.

Answering: What is Mark on Track in Microsoft Project?

Looking for information on the 'Mark on Track' button in MS Project? You're on the right page. Here I will explain what 'Mark on Track' is and in which situations we should use it.

What is 'Mark on Track'?

Sometimes, we are in situations that some of your tasks have progressed exactly as planned. Normally, the actual progression somewhat deviates with the target (baseline) but there may be one or more activity that has progressed 100% as planned till current date. For updating these activities, we have a simpler way. Instead of entering their progress in the normal way that takes a few steps i.e. entering '% Complete' / 'Actual Duration' / 'Remaining Duration', you can only click on 'Mark on Track'. By clicking this, you are telling MS Project to complete this activity till today exactly as it was planned. 

For example, you have a 10-day activity, starting on 1st of August and today is 5th of August. If you click on 'Mark on Track' on 5th, MS Project will complete this activity as 50%, and the remaining duration will be changed to 5 days.

That is a good feature of MS Project, which saves your time in updating activities, for the properly executed activities, which have progressed exactly as planned.

I hope this helps.

Solar Cars Information

Solar Car History

The very first solar car was invented in 1955. It was a 15-inch vehicle that was created by William Cobb from General Motors. 

The first car which a person could drive was built in 1962. A car from 1912 was converted to run on solar energy. In 1977, Alabama University built a proper solar car which efficient and better quality. In 1980 the engineering department of Tel Aviv University created a solar car, which was even more powerful. In recent years, several automobile companies have started producing solar powered cars and these come in a variety of shapes, design and specs.

How Much Light Does a Solar Car Need?

Diffuse sunlight from a cloudy sky will normally provide enough energy for the car to run. However, solar radiation is very variable from place to place, time to time and season to season, which can affect how fast a battery can be charged and power the car. In a well assembled car kit given suitable lighting conditions the solar cell supplies more than enough electricity to spin the wheels and propel the car.

When Will We Finally Be Able To Use Solar Power Cars?

Solar powered cars, boats, racing cars are already there and being used globally. These care will more commonly be seen on roads in near future, and when world's oil will become scarce, production and demand of these cars will increase manifold.

What Types of Batteries are Used in Solar Powered Cars?

Most commonly used lead acid batteries are used in solar powered cars. There are other batteries that but are rarely used, such as Nicad (nickel cadmium), NiFe (nickel iron) and some other but these are much more costly than the lead acid batteries.

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