Difference Between Total Float and Free Float in Primavera P6

Both Total Float and Free Float are very important values in Primavera. The planning engineer should keep an eye on both Float types, so that decision making becomes quicker and easier if anything needs to be changed in the plan.

Let's learn what Total Float and Free Float are in Primavera.

Total Float:

By definition Total Float is ""number of days an activity can be delayed without delaying project finish date"".   Let's understand Total Float more with an example:

Example 1:

Activity A Finish Date: 10 March.  Project Must Finish Date (Deadline) is 20 March. Activity A can be delayed until 20 March, hence delay of 10 days. So, Total Float for Activity A is 10 days.

Example 2:

Activity B Finish Date is 15 April. Project Must Finish Date is 15 April. We can see that Activity B can not be moved forward as it is already finishing on last day of project. So, Total Float of Activity B is 0 days.

Total Float of an activity can be dependent on Total Float of another activity, if both are linked with each other. For example:

Activity A --> Activity B  (Linked with Relationship)

Total Float of Activity B is 0 days.  So, Total Float of Activity A is also 0 because if it moves forward, it will move Activity B forward, hence Activity A can't be moved.  Put another way, the activities are linked, the Total Float of an Activity is the same of the last linked activity.

Free Float:

It is number of days an activity can be delayed without delaying the successor activity.   An activity, when linked with another activity always has 0 Free Float because if it moves, it will also move its success activity. An activity can have more than 0 Free float if it is not linked with any successor activity, so its Free Float will by number of days this activity can be delayed until project finish date. An activity can have more than 0 Free Float also in case when the activity has more than one successor and lag between of the successor activities is longer than the other. In this case, where there is less lag between the activities, the activity will have more than 0 Free Float.

Remember that Float is also called Slack. If you use Microsoft Project, there is no word Float in there, instead the word Slack is used.

Things You Can Do to Reduce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission

Are you eco-conscious? Are you interested in reducing CO2 emission in your area, in your city or country? Here is a few things you, your community or your country can do to reduce CO2 emission.

How to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Commission?

1. Stop importing big engine cars. Allow import and use of only those cars that are aligned with the road limits. Overly large engine sizes i.e 2.4L, 3.5L, 4.7L will not give any benefit to the user when the road speed limits are not high enough or the requirement is not there.

2. Replace fossil-fuel generated electricity with solar-powered systems and other available alternatives.

3. Take measures and make plans on how to reduce CO2 emission for industries.

4. Run road shows and online campaigns which may help in reducing fossil fuel generated power usage.

5. Get public to travel less in their own cars and more in the public transport

6. Make political decisions that will help reducing CO2 emission in the country.

7. Only use eco-friendly vehicle and fine-tune existing vehicles to reduce their CO2 emissions.

These are some effective ways to reduce CO2 emission in your area.

Also Read:

Wind Power | Facts & Advantages Of Wind Power

This article enlightens on the use of wind power as an alternate energy, advantages of wind power and future trends in this important technology.

What is Wind Power?

Wind power is a kind of solar energy because it is the tremendous temperatures of the sun that are responsible for its creation. Solar radiation heats all elements of the earth surface, though the amount of heat absorbed is different for all the structures. During the day, the earth is normally heated and cold during the night. The earth is heated because of the liberation of heat by different sources such as stones, sand, gravel, and bricks. According to the physical laws, the hot air travels upwards thereby decreasing the atmospheric pressure near the earth's exterior, and cool air is pulled towards the earth's surface. This relocation of air is called wind.

Kinetic Energy Of Wind

During the earlier days, wind power was effectively used for the operation of windmills and grinding of grains. The wind is created because of the movement of air, and the wind created by this process possesses substantial kinetic energy that can be effectively utilized to augment the other forms of energy. Wind power is considered to be a better technique for the electricity generation than other types. Wind power has been developed by using modern techniques, and is now being efficiently utilized for the wind turbines that generate clean energy for use by the industries and communities.

Wind Power As A Renewable Energy

Wind power has the natural advantage of being clean and simple that does not contaminates the water, air or the environment, whereas other the types of energy are not tidy and are responsible for the creation of huge scale of waste materials. Since the availability of wind is unlimited, the source of wind power is reliable unlike other forms of energies whose sources of origin are likely to be diminished.

Future Trends of Wind Power

Due to the fast depletion of oil and coal reserves, studies are being conducted globally to increase the utilization of alternate energies including wind power. Furthermore, since the environmental concerns have become serious in the society due to the increased awareness in this field, the use of wind power is gaining importance being clean and cheaper compared to the other types of energy.

These were advantages of wind power.

Six Alternative Energy Systems For Homes

The use of renewable, the alternative form of energy is dramatically gaining importance, given the increasing energy prices and the need for reviving the climate to a better state. While these solutions are increasingly being employed by the businesses, majority of the home owners find them faraway from their use.

Read on to find out what options for alternative energy for homes available to you.

In reality, these renewable energy solutions are in access now and the good news is that their costs are also going down fast. Many people are still unaware of various ways they can get financial help in buying the equipment. By taking help from the state tax, utility incentives, federal tax and rebates, further savings can be achieved. Among many ways by which householders can get electricity and heat for their homes, here are the top ones to achieve this, by renewable energy solutions.

1. Solar Panel

Solar panels are one of the best home renewable energy options available. These are flat, rectangular or square in their shape, commonly placed on the top of the house roof or in a big vicinage. With solar panel, you have a confidence of uninterrupted electricity supply even in heavy winter storms or rolling blackouts, when power from electric supplier is cut, you can enjoy power supply stored in batteries from the solar panels. Solar panel costs between $12,000 and $21,000. These also come with around 10 years warranty. Solar Panel buyers have an option of either storing electricity or selling it to the utility company.

2. Wind Turbines

Wind turbines are one of the most common renewable energy system used today for homes. Wind turbines cost between $2000 and $6000 and can reduce bills up to 15%. Before you buy it, it is good to first find out whether your home suits the wind directions and other related conditions.

3. Solar Hot Water System

Solar hot water systems are meant to supply warm radiation into your house and have many other applications. For example, pools, spas, etc can be powered with solar energy this way.These systems typically costs between $8000 and $15000 and can save up to 60% of your total water heating costs.

4. Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems

These are big sized systems that work with a liquid pipe tube that pulls out warmth or chilling from long (around 4 hundred feet) below ground and sends that upwards, in the home to preserve the temperature. These systems cut down costs of heating and cooling up to 50%. Cost of these systems ranges from $11,000 to $25,000.

5. Hydrogen Gas Fuel Cells

Natural Gas that is supplied to our homes is used to extract hydrogen gas from it. The hydrogen is so utilized to provide energy to hydrogen fuel cells, which results in creation of electrical energy, water and also oxygen. These systems costs slightly higher than other systems, typically price starts at $21,000.

6. Micro Hydro Energy Systems

These systems work with a momentum or reaction rotary engine generator and provide water to produce electricity. Those people who live near rivers, streams and those areas where it very often rains find this to be the only solution for them to get electricity. The costs of Micro Hydro Energy Systems vary between $1000 and $15,000.

7. Biomass Burning Boilers

This is another home renewable energy option. This option is very cost effective and efficient method for generating electricity. In this renewable energy solution, the raw wood and other similar materials can also be used to generate electricity. There are different types of biomass available; all produce different level of emissions. Biomass is converted in a gas form before the combustion process. It makes the burning cleaner and caused less emission. The process of conversion is accomplished by dilapidating biomass into colorless gas.

These are your options for alternative energy for homes. Go ahead get a renewable energy system for your home and save the earth.

Also read:

Learn How To Save Car Fuel: Useful Tips

Check and maintain air pressure

With the time, tires lose air pressure and sturdiness. Old tires have more rolling resistance; this leads to more fuel consumption. Make all tires of your car checked by accurate gauge regularly. Continuous running of car also heats up the tires. You can also overcome this thing by using tube-less tires but with these tires it does not mean these do not require tire pressure checks.

Check and maintain tire pressure:

With the time, tires lose air pressure and sturdiness.  Old tires have more rolling resistance; this leads to more fuel consumption. Make all tires of your car checked by accurate gauge regularly. Continuous running of car also heats up the tires. You can also overcome this thing by using tube-less tires but with these tires it does not mean these do not require tire pressure checks.

Avoid extra accessories:

If you have equipped your car with some extra accessories, AC can be an example; fuel burning will be greater then. This can be major issue for small cars. Therefore, for good car fuel economy additional facilities and extra load should be avoided.

Changing shifts:

Changing gears again and again will tend to vary RPMs (Resolution per minute) which automatically use more fuel. Maintaining car speed is best tool to save care fuel efficiently and effectively.

Cheap fuel and filling stations:

In under developed courtiers you would observe large variation in petrol quality from one filling station to other. Impure petrol is dangerous for your vehicle as well as it can increase fuel consumption as well. Always refill the fuel by well known filling station. You must be satisfies about quality of petrol. Cheap fuel will definitely be of poor quality. Be careful! It's the matter of your convenience.

Check your air filter:

Unclean air filter halts flow of air into the engine. It is quite easy to check how old and dirty air filter is. Simple remove the filter and place in sunlight if light is not passing through it, you need to change it .A dirty air filter restricts the flow of air into the engine, which harms performance and economy. Dirty filters damage environment too.

Conclusion

Car care fuel economy is totally an art. If you are good at it you would enjoy all your drives with little regard to inflating fuel prices.

Free Joomla! templates by AgeThemes